IT, a very well know key of 21st century. In this era of the technological stack, we are moving towards the digitization. And this count is getting increased every day and every night. This is just because Information Technology not just enable the business platform but it helps any organization in a bulk package. IT can make management easier than expected. We can use this IT to take our business online. IT can enable the ability to reach a huge amount of audience or communities. To comply with this and discuss in detailed I have chosen a very well know and popular organization name "Whispir.com, inc". Whispir, deals in the information technology services. This organization is not just limited to Australia but it also has branches abroad, like in USA and Singapore.
Here is the list of services provided by this organizations:
Web Design Development
Enterprise System (Organization TASK Management)
SEO and Digital Marketing
Whispir organization is an IT organization. It comes up with the various IT services to its customer as mentioned in the above section. Since this is an IT enable organization, there must have been the network or the internet to this organization to deal with their services. Every organization needs to have a good set up a strong network. A network must be secure and powerful enough. The network is a set of protocol to connect a device in such a way so that they can share the data, send a packet , etc.
There are various network devices an organization uses in their network.
List is below with its functionality:
In this era of the technological advancement there are various application software are in the market to fulfill the customer need. The application system can be developed to fulfill a specific purpose. Now, there are various types of application software. We can categorize this application software into two categories, one which runs online (hosted online) and others which run offline (installed on the local system). The online hosted application can be access from anywhere in the world having the credentials to access the same.
The user of the system inside or the outside of the organization can use the task reporting system. This will be accessible to everybody using a valid pair of the username and the password. This is how the client-server application works. A client can ask any report and they will receive the report as well. There is an associated website with this organization. And every staff will be able to log in via that website as well. "Maintenance and enhancement of application software consume a major portion of the total life cycle cost of a system", Lientz, B.P., Swanson, E.B. and Tompkins, G.E., 1978. Characteristics of application software maintenance. Communications of the ACM, 21(6), pp.466-471.
To access anything in a network there is a setup of process internally, this process can be express as an OSI model. OSI is a short form of the Open System Interconnect.
This OSI model has 7 layers with it. The moment we open the home page of the organization website we are on the top 3 layers as mentioned in the above diagram that is called the Software Layer. First of all we need to understand it is not always possible for OSI layer to run in a linear manner to get the job done.
Home Page: - Application layer and presentation, we are seeing the home page of the website.
Whatever we are able to see on that page is a part of presentation layer. We are seeing something on the page, HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, SFTP are being used that is application layer. We are receiving this home page with some data just because we have made some request.
We request for home page, our request goes in encrypted form to the network, network sends back the data in the encrypted form and the presentation layer is responsible to show the data after decrypting the same.
Whenever we request that is a session. This recognizes from where the request coming and send the data packet back to the client as per the request made by the client. This is what is responsible for establish, maintain and the end the connection session as per the need.
Transport Layer, this receives the data from the session and segment it. It identified the page URL and the port number of the page. It is responsible for requesting the right segment or the port. It performs the error checking. This layer plays the role of mediator of the above 3 layers of the OSI model and the 3 other remaining layers.
Network Layer- this is responsible for the data packet between the network. Whenever we open this home from any system, that system will be designated with a unique system id that is called IP address. Network layer uses the IP address to transmit the data as per the request made.
Data Link Layer - It takes the data from the network layer. This layer performs physical addressing. This enables data transmission via the various medium of data transfer.
Physical Layer - This is the layer where data is actually stored. If the website content is a database-driven or static page, It will be stored on a physical device. The above layer is responsible for taking the data from the physical stored devices.
There have been thousands of new tools and the technologies have been invented in the last decade in the information technology. This technology can take the world to a new height. Here is the list of advancement has been made with respect to the time.
Reliability is getting increase with respect to the time.
Security, newly invited technologies are getting more secure comparatively.
Time and cost-saving.
With this advancement in technology, there are negative energy are getting increased also day by day. The attacker is being technology ready to crack all the possible application or the devices. So, it's time for us to work on the security part in deep, so that we can prevent any possible attack. We must not open any malicious emails in the working system, messages. Various games are there in the market who interact our attention, these also come up with some viruses or malicious stuff with it. So, we must be ready with the updated anti-virus on the system as well to avoid any such attack or malicious attack. It is time for us to be aware of these security threats. Backups of or working files and folders, powerful Firewall setting, email sanitization, and filtering can save us or our organization.
1. Lientz, B.P., Swanson, E.B. and Tompkins, G.E., 1978. Characteristics of application software maintenance. Communications of the ACM, 21(6), pp.466-471.
2. Klein, J. and Herrod, A., Symbol Technologies LLC, 2004. Mobile terminal with integrated host application software. U.S. Patent 6,714,969.
3. Zuo, J.M. and Mabon, J.C., 2004. Web-based electron microscopy application software: Web-EMAPS. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 10(S02), pp.1000-1001.
4. Briscoe, N., 2000. Understanding the OSI 7-layer model. PC Network Advisor, 120(2).
Day, J.D. and Zimmermann, H., 1983. The OSI reference model. Proceedings of the IEEE, 71(12), pp.1334-1340.
5. Handel, T.G. and Sandford, M.T., 1996, May. Hiding data in the OSI network model. In International Workshop on Information Hiding (pp. 23-38). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Reichmeyer, F.X., Luciani, J.V. and Squire, M.B., Nortel Networks Ltd, 2001. Method and apparatus for remotely configuring a network device. U.S. Patent 6,286,038.
6. Fuh, T.F., Fan, S.H. and Qu, D., Cisco Technology Inc, 2002. Local authentication of a client at a network device. U.S. Patent 6,463,474.
7. Borella, M.S., Schuster, G.M., Mahler, J.J. and Sidhu, I., 3Com Corp, 2001. Protocol and method for peer network device discovery. U.S. Patent 6,269,099.
8. Alienor & Howarth, A., 2018. Network Layers Explained: OSI & TCP/IP Models [with examples]. Plixer. Available at: https://www.plixer.com/blog/network-layers-explained/ [Accessed August 10, 2019].
9. Anon, Cloud Communications Platform & Messaging Workflows. Whispir. Available at: https://www.whispir.com/ [Accessed August 10, 2019].
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