In the reference of reflection, the learning was that psychology refers to the “science behavior” that studies human activities and their nature. According to the study conducted by () demonstrates that the psychological behavior differs from person to person and the situation. The relevance factor that has been used from reflection one in the reflection two is that it studies the process of thinking, personalities, learning, motivations and cognition. The study of psychology prepares the person to deal with every situation of life. There are various factors of psychology that a person go through and it can include the prejudice and discrimination, self and identity and attraction and close relationship, all the factors are the important part of person’s daily life.
All these three factors affect the person's life and the psychological study provides the learning to the social world. The reflection focuses on the psychological problems and to avoid the psychological problem with the study of psychology. The major learning from the reflection one that I have learnt is learning can help in the change of an individual behavior. According to the study conducted by B.F. Skinner demonstrates that consequences are the result of change in behavior of an individual. Another major learning was the development that is oriented with the growth of humans and the next learning was the personality that consists of enduring emotions, behaviors and distinctive thoughts. All the learning that I have learnt from the reflection one helped me in the learning journal two by adding the factors in the sub-topics like the gender discrimination, self-esteem and the meaning of love.
The topic of self-esteem interested me because of my own experience of lack of confidence in me. Before studying psychology, I was lacking in the confidence that made the consequence of low self-esteem. Low self-esteem was making me apart and failed in the interesting fields that I wanted to pursue. Self-esteem is the most important factor in shaping the individual’s personality. The quote says that “We should concentrate more on our successes and less on the failures of our life for the establishment of true self-esteem”, it states the true meaning of establishment of self-esteem (Deuling & Burns, 2016). We lack confidence because we always focus on the failures of our life and make ourselves feel bad about it instead we should always focus and enhance the success of our lives to boost our confidence and it can help in building true self esteem. There are two types of self-esteem that includes high self-esteem and low self- esteem.
The low self-esteem refers to the low confidence and lack of self-belief whereas the high self-esteem refers to the behavior that includes the high confidence and the success oriented thoughts. There are many theories that are built on self-esteem that includes the theory of self-determination, according to the (Deci & Ryan, 1995 cited in the Ryan & Deci, 2004) states that a person is born with the natural motivation to explore, to master and to absorb the high self-esteem and the surroundings around him or her. The theory states that the factors of self-discriminatory theory that includes competency, relatedness and autonomy should be in balance. Second theory of self-esteem includes the theory of terror management theory. This theory has two basic factors that are attachment theory and self-determination theory.
The attachment theory refers to the development of self-esteem in a child when he or she discovers that the anxiety can be reduced with the help of support and love given by the caregiver whereas the self-determination theory states that intrinsic motivation in a child to deal with the anxiety with self-help (Kim & Manion, 2019). The last theory is stoichiometric theory that refers to the minimum level of social belonging that can help in building the high self-esteem and an individual should have the small social group but meaningful relationships with them. The self-esteem is relevant to my social world as in the social life needs the self-confidence and self-love to survive and to do best in every field of life. Self- esteem can help me achieve the real goals of my life in front of others if I have a positive mindset for myself. It can prevent me from the problems of anxiety and the increase of self-love and believe in myself (Park, 2018). Example - If I have low self-esteem then I will always think that I cannot do any task because of past failures and if I have high self-esteem then it will help me to have confidence and to do each task successfully in front of others.
Gender discrimination is a problem that everyone has experienced it in their life. This topic interested me because the gender discrimination is a very common problem or issue of the society and there is no area in the world that is not having the issue of gender discrimination. I have seen females not getting promoted because of the belief that “women cannot be good managers at the workplace”. Society has this narrow thinking that women can only be good at household work and in handling the kids at home (Cavalcanti & Tavares, 2016). The concept of gender discrimination refers to the discrimination that is based on gender or the unfair treatment of a person on the basis of their sex. The sexism can affect any sex that can be marginalized or oppressed by the society. The gender discrimination develops from the beliefs and the practices that has been followed from several years by the society (Romijnders et al., 2017).
Sexism can be oriented with both genders that is male and female but, generally there are women who get exploited because of being a woman. The society believes that women are weak to hold the responsibilities effectively and the men can only have the powers and they have inbuilt nature to handle the higher responsibilities. However, there are many women in this world who are doing better in every field. The gender discrimination includes the common belief that all the men are always superior to the other genders. The extreme discrimination can lead to the exploitation, sexual harassment, rape and other sexual violence. There are many places where women are exploited that include occupational sexism (Heilman & Caleo, 2018). Occupational sexism refers to the sexism that includes the discriminatory practices, low opportunities given to the women, actions and statements on the basis of the person’s sex. Example - giving an opportunity for a higher position to the male who has low experience whereas denying giving the position to a woman who has several years of experience just because of her gender.
According to the feminist theory, there is practice that is misogyny refers to the hatred of women and the girls and it includes the sexual discrimination, violence against women, belittling of women and sexual objectification. The violence against women is oriented with the violence that is based on gender that describes the basic human rights violation. There is another gender that faces the gender discrimination that is transgender. The transgender have fought several fights to get their basic human rights in the society as they are not treated as the part of the society. There are many people who make fun of them and do not provide the value and the occupational rights as well (Triana et al., 2019). This topic is relevant to my social world because at every step of my life I have seen people getting discriminated and practicing the gender discrimination that is not right for the society. The basic human rights and the opportunities should be oriented with the potential and not because of the gender of a person. The gender discrimination is a factor that is involved in our daily life.
The world needs love to become a good place to live in. Love can be defined as the respect and the feeling of attachment and caring we get from our parents, partner and friends. This topic interested me because love is the set of emotions that can change a person’s behavior by loving someone or spreading the love. Love refers to basic human emotions but not limited to attraction with the opposite or same gender because of the looks and materialistic things. There are several theories that are conducted in psychology that include the theory of liking and loving. The theory of liking and loving is conducted by the psychologist Zick Rubin states that there are three elements for love that are attachment, caring and intimacy (Schrage et al., 2020). Rubin believed that we always have a great experience when we appreciate and admire someone. He also mentioned that we love to spend our whole time with the specific person who is special to us but that does not really mean that we are in love instead that is liking.
On the other hand love is very intense, deeper and has a very strong desire for intimacy. All these three factors have an important role in building love as attachment refers to the need to receive the care, caring includes the value of the needs of another person and intimacy means sharing thoughts and feelings for each other. According to psychologist Elaine Hatfield, there are two types of love that are compassionate love and passionate love. Companionate love refers to the mutual affection, respect, trust and attraction whereas the passionate love is demonstrated as the intense sexual attractions, emotions, affection and anxiety (Mende et al., 2019). The third theory of love is conducted by John Lee that is the color wheel model of love. The psychologist states that there are secondary styles as well that include mania, pragma and agape. The next theory is the triangular theory of love that is conducted by the psychologist Robert Sternberg suggests that there are three parts of love including intimacy, passion and commitment.
Psychologist Stenberg suggests that the different combinations of the components of love can give the best results for romantic love. Love is based on the combinations of two or more elements as it is not based on only one aspect of love. The love can be of any type as it can be shared between two opposite genders, the love between kids and their parents and the love shared between the friends. This topic is relevant to my social world as it can help me to understand the aspects of love in a deep way. The theories made the impacts of better understanding of love and it’s components. The psychological learning of love enables me to identify the correct ways to do it.
How has this learning journal contributed to my understanding of social psychology and scholarly writing?
This learning journal is consists of the topic of psychological study that includes self-esteem, gender discrimination and the meaning of love. The self-esteem have built the understanding of the social psychology as in the social life needs the self-confidence and self-love to survive and to do best in every field of life. Self- esteem can help me achieve the real goals of my life in front of others if I have a positive mindset for myself. It can prevent me from the problems of anxiety and the increase of self-love and believe in myself. The learning from gender discrimination contributed in the understanding of social psychology as at every step of my life I have seen people getting discriminated and practicing the gender discrimination that is not right for the society.
The basic human rights and the opportunities should be oriented with the potential and not because of the gender of a person. The gender discrimination is a factor that is involved in our daily life. The learning of love by the theories can contribute in several ways to my understanding of social psychology and scholarly writing with the help of the five theories that demonstrated love shared between friends, parents and their kids and with partners can have different aspects and the components of love. The theories made the impacts of better understanding of love and it’s components. The psychological learning of love enables me to identify the love is not precise with only one element instead it is a mixture of two or more elements.
Cavalcanti, T., & Tavares, J. (2016). The Output Cost of Gender Discrimination: A Model‐based Macroeconomics Estimate. The Economic Journal, 126(590), 109-134.
Deuling, J. K., & Burns, L. (2017). Perfectionism and work-family conflict: Self-esteem and self-efficacy as mediator. Personality and Individual Differences, 116, 326-330.
Heilman, M. E., & Caleo, S. (2018). Combatting gender discrimination: A lack of fit framework. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 21(5), 725-744.
Kim, L. M., & Manion, A. B. (2019). Improving Self-Esteem and Building Self-Confidence in Adolescent Mothers: Implementation of Self-Efficacy–Focused Activity Sessions. Journal of psychosocial nursing and mental health services, 57(8), 11-15.
Mende, M., Scott, M. L., Garvey, A. M., & Bolton, L. E. (2019). The marketing of love: how attachment styles affect romantic consumption journeys. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 47(2), 255-273.
Park, M. (2018). The investigation of relationships: self-esteem, self-confidence, and conduct problems in counselling. International Journal of Information Technology and Management, 17(1-2), 140-154.
Romijnders, K. A., Wilkerson, J. M., Crutzen, R., Kok, G., Bauldry, J., Lawler, S. M., & Montrose Center. (2017). Strengthening social ties to increase confidence and self-esteem among sexual and gender minority youth. Health promotion practice, 18(3), 341-347.
Schrage, K. M., Maxwell, J. A., Impett, E. A., Keltner, D., & MacDonald, G. (2020). Effects of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Affection on Avoidantly Attached Partners’ Emotions and Message Receptiveness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 0146167220910311.
Triana, M. D. C., Jayasinghe, M., Pieper, J. R., Delgado, D. M., & Li, M. (2019). Perceived workplace gender discrimination and employee consequences: a meta-analysis and complementary studies considering country context. Journal of management, 45(6), 2419-2447.
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