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## Design and Analysis of Sensor Cover Using Numerical Approach

### Summary of Sensor Cover Analysis in ANSYS

A model of sensor cover is provided which is the existing design in an assembly. The sensor cover design is to be checked for its suitability to load applied on it when heavy weight vehicles passes on top of it. The applied loads on the cover are provided which are 1250 N and 3250 N in X and Y direction respectively. The existing design is found to be not meeting the deformation requirements and is modified. The modified design is iterated and a final design is analysed to meet the deformation requirements.

Introduction.

Problem Statement

Objectives for sensor cover analysis in ANSYS.

Prediction analysis model preparation of Sensor cover in ANSYS tool

CAD simplification and preparation in ANSYS Spaceclaim..

Importing CAD in ANSYS Mechanical for meshing.

Selected materials Nonlinear Structural steel, Nonlinear Aluminium and Nonlinear Titanium as used for current analysis.

Static structural model of sensor cover in ANSYS Mechanical

Results and Discussion of sensor cover design and modification.

Results and discussion from provided design of sensor cover in structural analysis.

Results and discussion from provided design of sensor cover w..

Sensor cover design thickness change for analysis.

Results and discussion from modified design of sensor cover in structural analysis.

Conclusion.

### Introduction to Sensor Cover Analysis in ANSYS

#### Problem Statement

An existing design of sensor cover is taken for analysis for which loading analysis is to be performed. The sensor cover assembly is used to house lenses and electronics component which is mounted to solid grounds. During the service, heavy vehicle might pass over the sensor assembly hence it can face heavy loads under which it can deform and crack. Current analysis is to perform the deformation of sensor cover top to an applied load in X and Y direction to bring the deformation within specification limits.

#### Objectives for Sensor Cover Analysis in ANSYS

1. Prediction of deformation and stresses with nonlinear structural steel material on sensor cover with applied loads of 1750 N and 3250 N in x and y direction respectively. The requirements of maximum deformation are prescribed on the cover. Allowed deformation should be limited to a maximum of 1 mm after full load application. Allowed deformation near lens regions should be limited to a maximum of 0.1 mm after full load application. Allowed permanent deformation should be limited to a maximum of 0.2 mm after complete load removal from the sensor cover
2. Modification of sensor cover design to meet the allowed deformation requirements in case it is more at applied loads
3. Analysis of provided sensor cover design with 2 additional nonlinear materials

### Prediction Analysis Model Preparation of Sensor Cover in ANSYS tool

#### CAD Simplification and Preparation in ANSYS Spaceclaim

An assembly of several components is provided for the sensor. Since the scope of current analysis is limited to sensor cover only, rest of the components are suppressed. The sensor cover’s top surface is divided into a quarter face where loading is to be applied. The model prepared in ANSYS Spaceclaim in shown in figure 1.

#### Importing CAD in ANSYS Mechanical for Meshing

To analyse the sensor cover geometry, it has to be meshed using ANSYS. Meshing is an important step in order to achieve required accuracy in the predictions. There are local mesh sizing controls defined near the lens mounting region in order to create finer mesh in that region. The entire cover is meshed with several sizes starting with 10 mm, 8 mm, and 6 mm. A final mesh size of 6 mm is considered for analysis. The created mesh with 6 mm size is shown in figure 2 that is used for analysis.

#### Selected materials Nonlinear Structural steel, Nonlinear Aluminium and Nonlinear Titanium as used for current analysis

The current analysis is to be performed with 3 different materials. For the current analysis, all the material properties are to be considered as nonlinear. The first material which is prescribed to be used for sensor cover design is structural steel. The linear properties of elastic modulus and nonlinear properties of stress strain curve for structural steel material is shown in figure 3 as taken from ANSYS material library for analysis. The second material which is chosen to be used for sensor cover design is aluminium alloy. The linear properties of elastic modulus and nonlinear properties of stress strain curve for aluminium alloy material is shown in figure 4 as taken from ANSYS material library for analysis. The third material which is chosen to be used for sensor cover design is titanium alloy. The linear properties of elastic modulus and nonlinear properties of stress strain curve for titanium alloy material is shown in figure 5 as taken from ANSYS material library for analysis.

#### Static Structural Model of Sensor Cover in ANSYS Mechanical

The sensor cover is mounted on a rigid surface hence the bottom surface of the sensor cover can be fixed in all the directions for movement. This is first boundary condition which is applied on the bottom most flat face of the sensor cover. The side flange of the sensor cover which also has an overlapped edge running all around the cover is also supported against a rigid support hence it can be applied with frictionless support. This is the second boundary condition applied on the sensor cover. The sensor cover has 4 cylindrical tapped holes at its 4 corners for assembly purpose. All the 4 holes are applied with cylindrical support boundary condition on them. This is the third boundary condition that is applied on the sensor cover. After the boundary conditions, loads are applied. The top surface of sensor cover is applied with 1750 N load in x direction and 3250 N load in y direction as prescribed for loading. All the boundary conditions as well as both the loads applied on the sensor cover are shown in figure 6.

The structural analysis is performed in 3 load steps. First load step is to apply the boundary conditions with no loads. Second load step is to apply the full load on the top surface and third load step is remove the load from the sensor cover. The loading curve is also shown in figure 6.

### Results and Discussion of Sensor Cover Design and Modification

#### Results and Discussion from Provided Design of Sensor Cover in Structural Analysis

Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that current design needs modifications to meet the design requirements.

#### Results and Discussion from Provided Design of Sensor Cover with 3 Different Materials

The analysis on sensor cover is also performed with aluminium and titanium material. The total deformation plot with nonlinear aluminium alloy after full load application and removal is shown in figure 12. The maximum value is 7.6 mm which is more than the allowed value. The total deformation plot with nonlinear titanium alloy after full load application and removal is shown in figure 13. The maximum value is 0 mm which is less than the allowed value. This is because there is no plastic deformation with titanium alloy.

#### Sensor Cover Design Thickness Change for Analysis

The load taking surface is 1 mm thick in the current design of sensor cover. The thickness of the top surface is increased from inside to 1.95 mm by using pull option in ANSYS spaceclaim. The modified geometry with highlighted surface is shown in figure 14. This geometry is called modified sensor cover which is used for analysis.

#### Results and Discussion from Modified Design of Sensor Cover in Structural Analysis

Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that modified design meets all the deformation requirements.

### Conclusion on Sensor Cover Analysis in ANSYS

The analysis of existing sensor cover design is finished with nonlinear structural steel material. Following are the noteworthy results to conclude the non-suitability of current design for deformation requirements –

1. The total deformation plot from second load step after full load application is 8.8 mm against the requirement of 1 mm hence does not satisfy it.
2. The deformation in the lens mounting region is also more than 0.2 mm
3. The total deformation plot from third load step after full load removal is 7.9 mm against the requirement of 0.2 mm hence does not satisfy it.
4. Maximum plastic strain after full load removal is 5.5%

Hence the design was modified to increase the thickness at top surface from existing 1 mm to 1.95 mm. Following are the noteworthy results to conclude the suitability of modified design for deformation requirements –

1. The total deformation plot after full load application is 0.23 mm against the requirement of 1 mm hence satisfies it.
2. The deformation in the lens mounting region is also less than 0.2 mm
3. The total deformation plot after full load removal is 0.0012 mm against the requirement of 0.2 mm hence satisfies it.
4. Maximum plastic strain after full load removal is 0.065%

Hence modified design can be used for fabrication.

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