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  • Subject Name : Nursing

Evaluating the Performance of Health Promotion Interventions

The essay aims to provide an insight to the infectious diseases that are sexually transmitted. Infectious diseases that are transmitted sexually are also known as sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The causes of STDs are bacteria, parasites, and viruses that have been pasted from the infected person to the healthy one by sexual contact. More than 30 types of STDs have been identified till now including Syphilis, Genital herpes, HIV/AIDS, Chlamydia, HPV, Gonorrhea, Trichomoniasis, etc. It has been seen that antibiotics are able to treat STDs that have been caused by bacteria or parasites but they cannot treat STDs that have been caused by viruses. There is no cure for those who have been caused by a virus, but the symptoms and the disease could be kept under control by medications (Carmona-Gutierrez, Kainz, & Madeo, 2016).

It has been seen that sexually transmitted infections are acquired more than 1 million every day worldwide. With each passing year, there is an approximate of 376 million new infections globally, with 1 out of 4 are the cases of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and syphilis (World Health Organization. (2018). It has been estimated that more than 500 million people have been infected with genital infection with herpes simplex virus till now. The cohort most at the risk of sexually transmitted infections are the females as it has shown that more than 290 million females have been infected with human papillomavirus infection. Approximately, 9, 88, 000 pregnant women have been infected with syphilis in the year 2016 and this resulted in more than 3, 50, 000 unpleasant birth outcomes. These adverse birth outcomes have included more than 200, 000 stillbirths and death of newborns (Korenromp et al., 2019). However, Health promotion is the most common and relevant approach in today’s era for directing the problems of public health.

The health circumstances are sited at an exclusive intersection as the world is dealing with a ‘triple burden of diseases’ (Kaur, Prinja & Kumar, 2015). Counselling and behavioural interventions are the current strategies that have been implemented and are even working in a positive way. They offer primary preclusion against sexually transmitted infections along with preventing the unintended or unwanted pregnancies. These include comprehensive sex education, pre- and post-test counseling regarding sexually transmitted infections, counseling the people regarding safer sex, risk-reduction, and promotion of condom. The interventions for them are specifically targeted to the key populations and they are sex workers, people who inject drugs frequently, men who have sex with men. Promotion of sex education and counseling tailored as per the requirements of adolescents. Counselling the individuals helps in improving an individual’s ability to identify the vital symptoms of sexually transmitted infections along with increasing the probability that they would seek care or support their sexual partner to do the same. These interventions are suitable to cohort most of the risks but, unfortunately, lack of training of the health workers, widespread stigma around the sexually transmitted infections, and lack of public awareness act as barriers to the effective use of these interventions (Chembtop et al., 2017).

References for Sexually Transmitted Infectious Diseases

Carmona-Gutierrez, D., Kainz, K., & Madeo, F. (2016). Sexually transmitted infections: Old foes on the rise. Microbial Cell (Graz, Austria), 3(9), 361–362. DOI: 10.15698/mic2016.09.522

Chemtob, D., Gandacu, D., Mor, Z., Grotto, I., Anis, E., & Rosenberg, E. (2017). A national strategic plan for reducing the burden of sexually transmitted infections in Israel by the year 2025. Israel Journal of Health Policy Research, 6, 23. DOI: 10.1186/s13584-017-0141-8

Kaur, M., Prinja, S., & Kumar, R. (2015). Evaluating the performance of health promotion interventions. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 142(2), 109–112. DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.164213

Korenromp, E. L, Rowley, J., Alonso, M., Mello, M. B., Wijesooriya, N. S., et al. (2019) Global burden of maternal and congenital syphilis and associated adverse birth outcomes—Estimates for 2016 and progress since 2012. PLOS ONE 14(2): e0211720. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211720

World Health Organization. (2018). Report on global sexually transmitted infection surveillance. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/stis-surveillance-2018/en/

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