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  • Subject Name : Food Technology

Question 1 - What Factors Would You Consider for On-Farm, Pre-Slaughter, Post-Slaughter and Storage/Packaging?

The beef can get contaminated in the transportation, processing, and retailing processes but the prevention measures need to begin from the production stage to provide good quality meat to consumers.

There are a lot of harmful as well as useful bacteria. Useful bacteria like Escherichia coli are important for it helps to maintain our enteric faunal index and also helps to digest our food. Most bacteria are genetically modified and are useful in our daily life such as Lactobacillus, Acetobacter, Propionibacterium, and other bacteria. But there are harmful bacteria such as Listeria or Streptococcus which causes disease in humans as well as farm animals.

Parts of the production chain

Microorganisms and source

Ways to manage the bacteria

1.Microbes in the farm

Escherichia coli- the dung of cows contain these bacteria

These microbes are mostly found in the mouth, the respiratory tract of the bovine, and these microbes cause diseases in cows and buffaloes. The source are dungs of cow, cow-shed and fodder which are kept in the shed.


Bacillus anthracis

Pasteurella multocida

Mycoplasma mycoides

Mannheimia haemolytica

Trueperella pyogenes

Mycoplasma bovis.

Brucella abortus

Listeria monocytogenes.

Leptospira canicola,

The bacteria can be managed by giving proper vaccination to the cows and buffaloes and maintaining clean and health hygiene at the cow-sheds or buffalo-sheds. Antibiotics are also supplied to the cows to avoid the contamination of these bacteria. Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, ampicillin, ampicillin and penicillin are very much mandatory for the control of these bacteria in the cows if the organisms are infected. In the farm there should be regular lighting of straws and cow-dung cakes to keep the microbes in check.

2.Microbes (bacteria) in the slaughter at an abattoir

Salmonella enterica (28% and 30%), Enterococcus faecalis (18% and 20%), Escherichia coli (13% and 14%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens are present in the maximum amount.

Staphylococcus and Bacillus cereus are also present.

These sources of these bacteria are from the blood and raw meat that are left behind after the cows are sacrificed.

Proper sanitation with disinfectants and phenyl helps to maintain the bacteria.Regular fumigation is to be done. Disinfectants such as bleaching powder and phen

3.Packaging and storage of the beef.

Staphylococcus aureus

Salmonella sp, E. coli

Clostridium perfringens

 Listeria monocytogenes are common types of bacteria found on the packaging and storage of the beef. If the beef is leaf untreated and opened, these bacteria tend to increase exponentially when exposed to the air. The raw meat is the hub of bacterial growth.

The best way of packing the beef should be done in antimicrobial packaging wraps and should be kept in cold storages so that the bacteria cannot grow. The repetitive salting process should be done in order to keep the bacterium from infecting the beef. While eating the beef, beef needs to be properly cooked around 40degrees.

Other than this, on-farm factors that can affect the meat are breeding and the pastures that the sheep might feed on. In the pre-slaughter period also the feeding and stress factors will affect the meat. Post slaughter temperature and freshness are some of the factors.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Food Management Assignment Help

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