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Theories of Motion and Energy


Table -1 represents the length of strings (cm) and the measured value of time (second) for trial-1, 2, 3 and 4. Range value from result listed in table.

Average value and relative range calculated and listed in table.

For 10 cm length string, Relative Range (%) = 0.091.04 x 100 = 8.65

For the 10cm length string, average time was 1.04 second. That means parachute can hang in air up to 1.04 seconds for 10cm string length.

For 20cm length string, average time was 1.14 second. That means parachute can hang in air up to 1.14 seconds for 20cm string length.

And last for 50cm length string, average time was 1.83 second. That means parachute can hang in air up to 1.83 seconds for 50cm string length.

Graph -1, Represents the Effect of the length of string on the Time taken to Drop. It generated with Time taken to drop from 0 to 2.5 Seconds and length of string from 0 to 60 cm. graph-1 shows that, as the length of string increases, time taken for drop increase. The parachute will land in less time if used a short string.

Graph -2, Represents length of string on the average time. It generated with average time from 0 to 2 seconds and length of string from 0 to 60 cm.Graph-2 shows that, as the length of string increases, average time increase.

From this results equation as per below,

Y = 0.0167x + 0.8215 and R2 = 0.7284

For 20cm string, average time

Y1 = 0.0167(20) + 0.8215

= 1.15 Seconds

But the average value of time as per practical result from table Y2 = 1.14 Seconds

Error = Y1 – Y2

= 1.15 - 1.14

= 0.01 Second

For 30cm string, error obtained is 0.04 second and for 50cm error obtained is 0.173 second.

In this experiment parachute carry a 50g mass from the staffroom balcony to ground. For that used different length strings and parachute dropped from staffroom balcony to the ground.

Below Parameters affect for this result.

1. Force :- Type of drag force and value of drag force.

Drag force = 0.5 x d x v2x A x C

v = Speed of falling parachute

A= Air Density

C =Coefficient of drag, it’s determined by aerodynamic object type. As the speeds up the drag force increases.

2. Terminal Velocity:- As the parachute falls , the force of gravity makes it to run faster ,the air drag force increases to the force of gravity and no net force acting on parachute. Parachute cannot speed change anymore at this final velocity, it is called as terminal velocity.

image shows Terminal Velocity acting on the balloon

3. Air Resistance:- The resistance force acts on parachute by air, in this case more air resistance occur for increase in length. The momentum of force is proportional to area of surface. If Surface area increases, the air resistance increase. It is known as drag force.

4. Acceleration:- Due to time value changes, the value of Speed changes. Value of acceleration increase due to momentum of external force applied. It is related with the value mass of parachute.

5. Gravity:- Pull force on Parachute, which attracts different masses. If the mass of object known, the strength of gravity can be find. Increase of mass, gravitational force increases. F= m x g, Value of force is 9.81 m/s2.

6. Material :- The material should be wind resistance, strong, thin and light weight. Air went added in parachute for reduce the spin action.

Parachute follows laws of Newton’s.

1st: Law:- “An object in motion stays in motion unless a force acts against it. An object at rest stays at rest unless a force acts against it”. (Inertia)

There is no external force for parachute, so it will stay stationary in the balanced force condition and Parachute start travelled at constant speed due to momentum of force acting on it.

2nd Law:- “F = mass x acceleration .Force equals mass times acceleration”. When value of acceleration for parachute increases due to air, momentum of force acting on parachute increases.

3rd Law:- “Every action has an equal and opposite reaction”. In case of Hot air balloons, equal and opposite force created by fire makes balloon to opposite reaction movement.


Experiment to design parachute to carry 50g mass and table-1, Graph-1 and Graph-2 represents the result about that longest parachute took much time to drop. From graph equation generated which having error. The error obtained for small length is less, and it will not more effect on the accuracy of the result and for large length error obtained will effect on accuracy of result and it cannot more precise.



http://study.com/what is the terminal velocity.html/




SHIGLEYS MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN, NINTH EDITION, Published by McGraw-Hill, a business unit of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020.

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