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Table of Contents



Overview of the episode of communication 

Application and overview of the preferred model of counselling

Analysis of the process of communication


Reference list


Communication is effective in analysing the inner conflicts of the person in the front. The episode of communication helps in interaction regarding issues that are being faced by the person. This essay will be analysing an episode of communication with a person dealing with a mental issue. It involves women in the workplace suffering from mental depression. Analysing the women it can be noticed that she considerably fails in delivering the jobs that were allocated to her. Consecutive failure in the workplace alongside with low or mo concentration in the surrounding things leads to this episode of communication with her. Being a mental health counsellor, this particular episode of communication evolved regarding the issue of depression, anxiety and low concentration issue faced by the women. Apart from a detailed overview of the episode of communication, models of communications such as the transactional model of communication and model of counselling such as Cognitive Behavioural Theory (CBT) will be discussed in this study based on the episode if communication along with the issues that are being faced by the women who are being interacted.


Overview of The Episode of Communication

The client that is being used in the current episode of communication is a school teacher named Mavid D’Souuza. She is 35 years old women working in a primary school with kids up to the age of 8 years. The client is married for 7 years and has one kid of 5 years. She is highly educated and possesses a good skill of communication and interaction that is further reflected from the current occupation held by her.

Upon suitable interaction with the client, it has been found that the client has been facing mental and emotional disorder that is affecting her from performing the desired duties within the workplace. From the interaction, it has been depicted that the client was facing domestic abuse by her husband after the birth of her child. According to her, the behaviour of her husband suddenly changed after the birth of her baby girl. As per her opinion, her husband was expecting a baby boy and the birth of a baby girl turned out the negative side of him. The constant domestic violence raised certain health complications within the client. Besides, constant abuse mentally and physically developed a mental issue within the client. Moreover, she added that both of them are going to get divorced very soon adding more to the mental complication level. Therefore, it can be inferred that the incident took place with the client is affecting the emotional as well as mental issues within her.

As a result of this, she was not being able to focus on the school duties as a teacher. Majority of the times, she fails to manage the class and answer the queries of the students. As per the opinion of Dalle Grave & Calugi (2018), failing to perform the official duties tends to rise complications within the workplace. It also aims at rising workplace conflicts and arguments within the other workers. Besides, as argued by Salkovskis & Millar (2016), the maintained cause can also lead to degradation of the image in front of the other members. Other than that, as depicted by Swan & Sloan (2018), domestic violence and abuse state the sole reason for anxiety and depression within the individuals. Depression and anxiety lead the client through a low level of concentration. This prevents the client from performing the official duties and executing it with proper ease.

Upon proper interaction, it was found that the emotional, behaviour and feeling of the client is being affected by the environmental and social aspects. As per the statement of Wood, Byrne & Morrison (2017), environment and social aspects contribute to the standards of living among the individuals. Being a divorcee and raising a child all alone is going to be pointing many fingers towards them. This was the main area of concern within the client that was affecting the client mentally and emotionally. On some of the aspects, the mentioned area also seems to be affecting the behaviour of the client towards others. As per her opinion, it takes a lot of courage to handle societal flaws and rising fingers. Hence, analysing the condition of the client it can be inferred that the environmental and social aspects seem to be affecting most of her emotion and behaviour.

Upon reflection, it is most likely to be assumed that emotional and behavioural aspects within the researchers or the mental health associates can be triggered by the societal aspects. It is because society plays a crucial role in the living standards of an individual. In the opinion of Stewart, Catroppa & Lah (2019), a person living within a society is mostly bound by societal laws and policies. From this side, the fear held by the client is completely justified. Henceforth, it can be concluded from this section that mental issues such as emotional, behaviour alongside feeling is likely to be get affected through the aspects of environment and society.

Application and Overview of The Preferred Model of Counselling

Communication and counsellors play a crucial role in the mitigation of mental issues that are being faced by individuals. As per the analysis of O'Driscoll et al. (2016), proper communication forms the base of counselling. Proper communication assists in the opening up of the client and help in sharing the issues that have been troubling within the different aspects of life. As depicted by King& Said (2019), implementation of a proper model of communication along with proper counselling model can help in the treatment of the mental condition of the client.

Model of Counselling

Model of communication helps in depicting the process of counselling that tends to be undergone by the client. As analysed by Calderon et al. (2019), counselling model gets selected based on the nature of mental issue faced by the client. Proper selection of the counselling model may be of great help to the client in mitigating the issues permanency. Cognitive Behavioural Theory (CBT) is one of the famously used counselling models by mental health counsellors. Moorey & Lavender (2018) commented that CBT facilitates two ways of communication among the client and the counsellors that further creates efficiency in the mitigation of the issues. The theory is based on the thoughts and communication process used by the clients to handle the different situation within daily life. In addition to this, the model also depicts finding an alternative solution to dealing with the daily life situation.

diagram illustrates Cognitive Behavioural Theory

Figure 1: Cognitive Behavioural Theory

(Source: Moorey & Lavender, 2018)

Apparently, positive thinking also facilitates in this model. It is because, as reflected by Furlonger et al. (2018), positive thinking can be effective in the implementation of positive thought that furthermore will be helpful in changing the perception towards the other thing that is expected to change the mental circumstances of the client. In the present case, it can be observed that the client possess a preconceived idea of negative aspects of society due to the case of divorce and the violence faced by her. Thoughts of no acceptance within the society along with gathering negative thoughts from the society form the major concern within the client.

As CBT challenges the person in terms of changing the negative thoughts into pragmatic, inspirational and realistic thoughts, therefore, changing the thinking pattern of the client can be effective in mitigating the fear within her. It can also be effective in assisting the client in thinking positively and mitigate the aspects of anxiety and depression from the individual. A key strength of the model involves the elimination of the negative thinking process and helps in the implementation of a positive perspective regarding the situation. However, as argued by Nye et al. (2019), the model does not focus on the long term behaviour of the client that is highly considered as the disadvantage of this model. Hence, within the communication session with the client, the CBT model can be used. It will be effective in changing the thought process of the client and can also be effective in mitigating the concerns and establish a positive perspective.

Model of Communication

On the other hand, the model of communication also plays a crucial role in the management of the mental issue faced by the client. As per the illustration of Idowu et al. (2017), proper communication can help in revealing the fear and concern that leads to the mental issue within the client. However, implementing a communication model can be effective in the implementation of systematic approaches in executing communication. A proper model of communications helps in making communication easier. In this respect, the transitional model of communication can be adopted in the current case. As opined by Cooper et al. (2018), the model of transitional communication helps in facilitating two ways of communication. As per this model, both the person involved in communication possesses the equal right of stating their views. This helps in analysing the issues that are being possessed by the client alongside suggesting proper steps that can be effective in mitigating the issue.

image shows Transitional model of communication

Figure 2: Transitional model of communication

(Source: Cooper et al. 2018)

Key features that are being possessed by this model of communication involves the usage of interpersonal communication (Cooper et al. 2018). It also involves interchanging roles of the sender and the receivers within the communication process. However, it is also observed to involve simultaneous feedbacks that can lead to new improvement. The aspects of simultaneous along with instant feedback are considered to be an advantage in this model of communication. Other than that, no discrimination between the receiver and the sender has also perceived as the strength of this communication. Nonetheless, as stated by Rappaport et al. (2017), this model enhances non-verbal communication that is considered to be one of the biggest disadvantages of the model.

Moreover, facilitating both sided communication tends to involve more noise within the process of communication. This can further affect the understanding of the thought process expressed by words (Crowley et al. 2018). In the current case, the application of this model helps perceive the thought of the client and suggesting her with effective changes. As the model enhances two watts of communication, therefore, the client and counsellor involved in the process can listen to each other. Hence, through the described model communication seems to have an effective form in the current case. It helps the counsellor in analysing the issue and suggesting the strategies of mitigation simultaneously.

Analysis of The Process of Communication

In the current case, the Transitional model of communication has been followed while communicating with the client. As depicted earlier, the model enhances two ways communication that helps the client as well as the counsellor to derive suitable outcome for mitigating the issue. Analysed by Bauk, Schmeink & Colomer (2018), the transitional model helps in evaluating the root cause and suggest strategies accordingly. Based on the model of communication that have been implemented in this communication episodes involves the key strength of two ways communication that can further be used for interpersonal communication. Moreover, as depicted by Ruopp, Baughman & Simon (2018), instant and simultaneous feedback is considered to be strength of the model. Additionally, the model seems to be having no discrimination between the sender and the receiver. As the model is adopted by the counsellor in this process, hence, it can be inferred that the advantages that are possessed by the model are also considered to be the advantage of the counsellor.

Simultaneously, the disadvantages that are being consisted of the model is considered to be the disadvantage of the counsellor. In this respect, the greatest disadvantage of the counsellor lies in the non-verbal communication within the process. However, feedback that is being provided by this model is the key strength that helps the counsellor in figuring the right strategies and implementing it instantly. Nonetheless, the current episode of communication is likely to affect the counsellor. It is because, as considered by Forchuk et al.(2019), domestic violence and divorce is a sensitive issue. Moreover, the concern of the client in terms of the environmental and social issue is also justified to a great extent. Hence, it is also likely to be creating a major impact on the thought process of the counsellor. Apparently, attending the communication session for being prepared for the communication session can result in the derivation of certain knowledge.

Through the models of communication adopted in the case, it can be learnt that two-way communication is helpful for both senders as well as the receiver. Besides, proper feedback can be effective in enhancing the process of communication and implementing the desired outcome. Conversely, the model of counselling that has been adopted in the same process provides the idea of positive thinking. As depicted by Carrascal & Rodríguez (2017), the model provides with the idea of changing behaviour with the help of positive thinking. It also infers that positive thinking is efficient in changing the perception that can automatically change the mental condition. It can also mitigate the aspects of depression and anxiety resulting in major mental health complications (Harrod, 2019). Hence, based on this analysis it can be inferred that perception is the main reason for the development of anxiety and depression within an individual. Positive perception can automatically change the negative thoughts further mitigating the mental pressure.

Based on the adopted model of communication and counselling, it can be assumed that the counsellor was successful in building a rapport with the client. Two ways communication seems to be promoting the session of communication while the social and environmental factors were hindering the aspects of communication to a major extent. It is because; the client at first was hesitant in sharing the issue because of the social perception or to be precise the perception of the counsellor towards the client. However, as the transitional process was adopted within the session, therefore, the counsellor was able to maintain an effective listening throughout.


From the above analysis of a specific counselling or communication session, different aspects related to the particular session have been analysed. The current counselling session relates to 35 years old women working in a primary school. The client in this communication session seems to be dealing with the mental issue of anxiety and depression due to domestic violence and a divorced case faced by her. The issue faced by the client seems to be affecting the work circumstances and she was not able to perform the desired duty within the desired timeframe. Besides, the behaviour of the client also got affected due to the mental issue faced by the client. The current process seems to be using the two different models relating to communication and counselling. It includes the transitional model that aims at facilitating two ways of communication alongside instant feedback that simultaneously serves as the strength of the model as well as the counsellor. Moreover, CBT of counselling involves the strength of changing negative thinking in order to change the perception and involves positive thought further mitigating depression and other mental issues.

Reference list

Bauk, S., Schmeink, A., & Colomer, J. (2018). An RFID model for improving workers’ safety at the seaport in transitional environment. Transport, 33(2), 353-363.

Calderon, A., Schneider, C., Target, M., & Midgley, N. (2019). ‘Interaction structures’ between depressed adolescents and their therapists in short-term psychoanalytic psychotherapy and cognitive behavioural therapy. Clinical child psychology and psychiatry, 24(3), 446-461.

Carrascal, S., & Rodríguez, Y. G. (2017). The Influence of Teacher Training for the Attention of Students with Intellectual Disabilities in the Transitional Period to Adulthood. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(11), 1863-1868.

Cooper, M., Messow, C. M., McConnachie, A., Freire, E., Elliott, R., Heard, D., ... & Morrison, J. (2018). Patient preference as a predictor of outcomes in a pilot trial of person-centred counselling versus low-intensity cognitive behavioural therapy for persistent sub-threshold and mild depression. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 31(4), 460-476.

Crowley, S. L., Byrne, S., McNulty, S., Keating, K., Nestor, T., Owen, Y., ... & King, M. D. (2018). The Temple Star Transitional Model of Care for epilepsy; the outcome of a quality improvement project. Epilepsy & Behavior, 79, 4-8.

Dalle Grave, R., & Calugi, S. (2018). Transdiagnostic Cognitive Behavioural Theory and Treatment of Body Image Disturbance in Eating Disorders. In Body Image, Eating, and Weight (pp. 309-321). Springer, Cham.

Forchuk, C., Martin, M. L., Sherman, D., Corring, D., Srivastava, R., O'Regan, T., ... & Harerimana, B. (2019). Healthcare professionals’ perceptions of the implementation of the transitional discharge model for community integration of psychiatric clients. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 35(9), 28.

Furlonger, B., Kiley, S., Moore, D., Busacca, M., & Chittleborough, P. (2018). Using a single-case experimental design to evaluate a cognitive-behavioural self-management counselling intervention. Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 9(1), 46-60.

Harrod, C. (2019). The peer mentor model at RecycleForce: An enhancement to transitional jobs programs. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 58(4), 327-351.

Idowu, A., Esere, M. O., Okunlola, J. O., & Iruloh, B. R. (2017). Cognitive Behaviour Therapy as a Counselling Strategy for Managing Academic Stress among Adult Learners in Nigeria. KIU Journal of Social Sciences, 3(2), 83-90.

King, D., & Said, G. (2019). Working with unaccompanied asylum-seeking young people: cultural considerations and acceptability of a cognitive behavioural group approach. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist, 12.

Moorey, S., & Lavender, A. (Eds.). (2018). The Therapeutic Relationship in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. SAGE Publications Limited.London.

Nye, A., Connell, J., Haake, R., & Barkham, M. (2019). Person-centred experiential therapy (PCET) training within a UK NHS IAPT service: experiences of selected counsellors in the PRaCTICED trial. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 47(5), 619-634.

O'Driscoll, C., Mason, O., Brady, F., Smith, B., & Steel, C. (2016). Process analysis of trauma‐focused cognitive behavioural therapy for individuals with schizophrenia. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 89(2), 117-132.

Rappaport, T. S., MacCartney, G. R., Sun, S., Yan, H., & Deng, S. (2017). Small-scale, local area, and transitional millimeter wave propagation for 5G communications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 65(12), 6474-6490.

Ruopp, M. D., Baughman, A. W., & Simon, S. R. (2018). Improved Transitional Care Through an Innovative Hospitalist Model: Expanding Clinician Practice From Acute to Subacute Care. Federal Practitioner, 35(9), 28.

Salkovskis, P. M., & Millar, J. F. (2016). Still cognitive after all these years? Perspectives for a cognitive behavioural theory of obsessions and where we are 30 years later. Australian Psychologist, 51(1), 3-13.

Stewart, E., Catroppa, C., & Lah, S. (2019). A novel cognitive behavioural intervention with Theory of Mind (ToM) training for children with epilepsy: protocol for a case series feasibility study. Pilot and feasibility studies, 5(1), 12.

Swan, J., & Sloan, G. (2018). An Introduction to the Art and Science of Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapy. In European Psychiatric/Mental Health Nursing in the 21st Century (pp. 59-73). Springer, Cham.

Wood, L., Byrne, R., & Morrison, A. P. (2017). An integrative cognitive model of internalized stigma in psychosis. Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy, 45(6), 545-560.

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