Ever since the development of robotics, it has been evolving. Robotics are based on two related technologies: tele operators and numerical control. Numerical control robots run on the numerical codes designed and coded on their paper tape or other media. Between the late 1940s and early 1950s, the first numerical robot was made and was first demonstrated by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1952.
A tele operator is a mechanical manipulator where the robot is controlled by human from the remote location. The very first implication of the robot was designed in 1940s to handle the radioactive materials. It was an implication or repeat of an action by a human from another location where a mechanical arm was controlled by the action done by human from distant location.
The advanced robotics included both the technologies, where if one operated to provide the concept of programming the another marked its efficiency in doing mechanical works, which came to known as Industrial Robot. The idea was first put to work in 1961 to upload the parts from die casting operation.
The most widely accepted definition for Industrial Robot quoted by Robotic Industries Association:
“An industrial robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.”
The overall principle of robotics design is mechanical manipulator and computer system that controls it. Mechanical manipulator consists of links and joints, links are rigid member while joins are moveable in various axes, which also makes it named as axes. Five types of mechanical joints are formed as per the usage.
The designing of manipulator disintegrated in two parts depending on their application and usage. (1) The wrist, it consists of two or more compact joints with a grip to grasp for orienting commodities the parts and tools in the work location. (2) an arm- and- body which is made out of three joints connecting to larger links to move and position parts or tools in the robot’s work space.
The robot programming is a bit hard core work where the robot is taught various with computation of various programming. There are various method to do the task one which is lead-through programming where the manipulator is either physically moved or by using a control box, and the motion is recorded in the robot’s computer memory, which can be used to process the same task in future.
The other is similar to computer programming language which is designed especially for robot control and its capabilities include 1. input/output and 2.motion control. To design the pattern and motion of the robot to move its manipulator is controlled by motion-control commons.
Manufacturing is one of the most important application area of automation technology. There are various types of automation technologies as follow:
Fixed Automation- it means assembled or already a set of sequence is designed and the same are repeated over the time to process the task.
Programmable Automation- in this to accommodate different product configuration the production equipment is given the freedom to change its operation sequence.
Fixed Automation: A flexible automation system is capable of producing a variety of parts with virtually no time lost for changeovers from one-part style to the next.
This is a series of station connected by transfer system to move the parts or products. In this line the various products are made at different sets of station with controlled programmable automation and fixed automation. Separate work is operator in different work stations. Where one work station is designed to cut and shape the other will be implemented to assemble the parts. Automated production is employed in many industries such as automobiles. It is helpful in cutting out the mechanical labor besides being less time consuming. Modern production line function on the programmable logic controller where the functionality is controlled by the special computer which mark the connection between the industrial equipment which thereafter perform sequence and timing to control such equipment’s function.
The assembling of a products is a time consuming and cost taking, where initially a large number of labor were to work, with different work assigned. Later, with the implication of automated assembly it was analyzed the process became really efficient and timely. Automation assembly works on the fixed automation where the set of sequence is programmed to various stations, typical work head include, joining devices, screwdrivers, welding heads and staking or riveting machines. These are similar to machinery transfer lines expect they work in assembling instead of machining.
The employment of robots in the manufacturing sector is of immense usage. Though the some part requires tedious jobs still the befit overheads. Thus the usage of robot is divided in to three parts- 1. Material handling, 2. Process operations, and 3. Assembly and inspection.
Material handling is the one of the initial and less technology required implication where the robots are programmed to load and upload the commodities. It also includes transfer of the product from one section of the wor station to another. The ingenious robot with modulator and gripper will make the task simpler work in well-organized manner, edging off the human labor. Many of the task of this is simple with already programmed memory to vary out the function in sum calculated manner.
The robots manipulate the tool in the robotic processing operation to perform a task. The various operations are set to the memory of a robot with a course of time and sequence. The robot is expected to repeat the same task over the time to get the operation successful at their level. For example, welding and spray painting.
The robots are programmed to work in manner to achieve the successful assembling no matter what sort of batches are produced. The robot is designed with measured amount of movement to operate the process to assembling. Various work stations are designed to carry out the assembling of various sets of batches. Once the overall processing of the manufacturing come to an end. The inspection or rechecking of the work is never ignored, the utilization of robot in this sector is growing. To do the inspection sensors are placed beneath the various parts and qualification is done if the quality specification is met.
Substitute of human labor is provided almost in all the sector by robot. Here are some of the human jobs that are potentially replaced by the robots: 1. Effectiveness of the robot make them work in two or more shifts, 2. Repetition work involving same set of sequence to carried out in same frame of time, 3, loading and uploading task is cut off, 4. It has replaced labor implication in hazardous work areas.
In the recent development of robotics has implemented a designed robot to face the consumer, where the bot is programmed to follow the set of instruction to reply back the consumer in much needed way. The robots are employed to take up the overall communication in a manner to get the query or request of the consumed providing no failure. Also the bot as this platform are expected to meet the consumers request with no lack in information. This robot is now utilized in many stored, and areas where the set of instructions are fixed.
The utilization of robots has reduced the effect of human error, bringing in more production, efficiency in work, cost cutting, safeguarding from hazardous places and more efficient uses of machinery. The time frame of human work and automated machine is of far difference, where the human take 1900 work week, an automated machine can wind it up in 70 hours. This has led to reduce the work of United States to 40 hours in a week. If we count the benefits and usage its never-ending and this is the reason that robotics is growing as par since its invention and the stats still indicate its growth at alarming rate in coming future.
However, if we focus on other part there is not comparable to it, and this is eradicating the labor work from the roots, causing more and more people to lose their jobs every year. The perfection of robot work is causing to products with almost zero defects with 100 per cent work efficiency and over productivity. The supply can be calculated to be more than demand, with people losing their jobs. The overall cycle is causing the imbalance in the society, with agitated mass due to their replacement with inhuman. The robot has marked itself successful in proving to be more efficient and productive substitute to human kind, with more advancement it gets better in coming future.
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