Applied Analysis in Health Research

Abstract on Applied Analysis in Health Research

Hypertension is considered to be one of the greatest burdens over the health care sector that has increased the complication of the patient. There are different factor that can lead to elevated systolic pressure like smoking, increase the glucose blood level and poor diet. The drastic effect of the smoking and increased blood glucose level is directly related to deteriorating health status that also has an impact over the systolic blood pressure. The research is going to analyse the effect of smoking and blood glucose over the systolic blood pressure. The studies have utilized the cross-sectional survey data to evaluate the effect of smoking and blood glucose level over the systolic blood pressure. The sample size for the study includes 55 participants that were selected by non-probability sampling method. The study has analysed the relation of the gender concerning the different aspect which include smoking, blood glucose and blood pressure. Data reveal that there is a direct relation of the smoking and blood glucose level with an increased level of systolic blood pressure. But the direct correlation is still missing thus there is need for further study to accurately understand the effect of the smoking and blood glucose level concerning the pathophysiology. The study clinically can be utilized to improve the care process and blood glucose level with a smoking history should be considered during the treatment.

Introduction to Applied Analysis in Health Research

The increased blood pressure that leads to hypertension is the condition when the systolic blood pressure is about 140mmHg and is considered being one of the major public health issues. Many factors are directly related to the increased risk for hypertension that leads to much serious complication like stroke, heart disorder and kidney. Smoking is considered to directly relate with increased systolic blood pressure and it directly leads to endothelial damage followed by dysfunction of the endothelial layer that lead to impairment coronary vasodilation. The pathophysiology of the hypertension is directly related to smoking as it directly disturbs the haemodynamic that directly affect the arteries (Li et al., 2017). Smoking is one of the major reasons behind cardiovascular disease as it is directly related to the elevated blood pressure that leads to hypertension. The elevated blood pressure concerning the smoking is directly related to the decreased body mass index and increased amount of the adiposity in the individual (Linneberg et al., 2015). The smoking is directly related to increased blood pressure due to vasoconstriction and elevated heart rate that majorly occurs due to the nicotine present in the cigarette. The nicotine directly works as an adrenergic agonist that lead to increased local and systemic catecholamine release which stimulate the vasopressin release that directly disturbs the blood pressure set point (Silvia et al., 2017).

The increased blood glucose level that leads to diabetes directly leads to increased risk for hypertension which leads to increased risk for multiple disorders. The combination of the increased blood glucose with increase blood pressure leads to circadian rhythm abnormality that leads to organ damage (Lv et al., 2018). There is a relation between the increased blood glucose level with elevated systolic blood pressure is due to the disturbance of the metabolic system of the body. The basic mechanism of the direct impact over the blood glucose level over the systolic blood pressure directly related to the maladaptive changes that include complex interaction between the different aspects. The different aspect that is the correlation with blood glucose level increase risk for increased systolic blood pressure includes the autonomic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with individual environmental factor and mechanical forces (Khangura et al., 2018). 

Systolic hypertension is increased blood pressure that directly increased risk multiple issues like peripheral vascular disease, kidney disorder, hyperthyroidism and arteriovenous fistula. Many factors lead to increased risk for systolic hypertension that includes smoking, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and family history.

Their systolic blood pressure is considered to be one of the major issues as it increases the mortality rate by increasing multiple complications like cardiovascular disorder and cerebrovascular disorder. Two reasons can lead to systolic hypertension which includes complication associated with diastolic hypertension or from the de novo elevation in the systolic blood pressure. The increased risk with systolic hypertension includes endothelial dysfunction, arterial vascular smooth stiffening, pro-inflammatory release, insensitivity to vasodilators and elastin calcification (Bavishi et al., 2016). Systolic hypertension is considered to be one of the serious issues that increase the mortality rate in young as well as middle-aged individuals. The increased risk associated with systolic hypertension as it can lead to ischemia, stroke and heart attack thus there needs to reduce the blood pressure my understanding different associated aspects (Yano et al., 2015). The increased systolic pressure is directly linked to the adverse cardiac event thus it increases the need to properly manage it to improve the health status of the individual. The systolic blood pressure can be maintained by reducing the different risk factor that can trigger the elevation of the blood pressure. Smoking is considered to be one of the factors that can lead to disturbance in the systolic blood pressure but actual pathophysiology is still unknown and blood glucose level also influence the systolic blood pressure (Tan & Thakur, 2020). 

There are different risk factors are associated with hypertension but actual pathophysiology behind different risk factor is still not clear. This increase the need to understand the direct relation of the different factor linked with the increased systolic blood pressure that can increase the complication of the individual. Hypertension is considered to be one of the major public issues and systolic increased blood pressure is directly associated with hypertension. There is a need to understand the systolic blood pressure and how different factor are associated to disturb the normal set point which leads to hypertension.

Objective

The increased prevalence of the high systolic blood pressure leads to hypertension which directly increases the risk for multiple disorders. The study will analyse the effect of smoking and blood glucose level over the systolic blood pressure.

  • To understand the impact of smoking over the systolic blood pressure
  • To improve knowledge about the relation between blood glucose level and systolic blood pressure.
  • To understand the correlation of the smoking and blood glucose level over the systolic blood pressure

Aim of Applied Analysis in Health Research

 The research aims to understand the effect of smoking and blood glucose level over the systolic blood pressure in adult individuals. The study will try to explore the effect of both of these factors over the systolic blood pressure to find the link between them. The study aims to find the link between the two factors with respect to the systolic blood pressure.

Research Design of Applied Analysis in Health Research

The study has utilized the cross-sectional survey data for the study to understand the effect of smoking and blood glucose level over the systolic blood pressure. A cross-sectional study is considered to be the observational study and it selects the participant on the bases on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study design directly analyses the outcome and exposure at the same time in participant to evaluate the prevalence (Setia, 2016). The observational research design is utilized in the study as a cross-sectional study is one of the subsections of the observational design. The cross-sectional study is utilized to assess the population by sample size and it can be utilized to evaluate multiple outcomes in one research (Thiese, 2014). The study has utilized the cross-sectional survey data of the health promotion fair occurred in 2017 in NSW and then analysed in by using the tool.

Methodology of Applied Analysis in Health Research

The research paradigm utilized in the study includes positivism approach as it has gone to analyse the effect of smoking and blood glucose. The positivism approach observes the phenomena that are governed by the social aspect to understand different aspect. The positivism approach utilizes the qualitative data to justify the research question and this data should be statistically analysed to obtain results (Rehman & Alharthi, 2016). The deductive research approach is utilized to correlate the different aspect that can directly influence systolic blood pressure. The deductive approach is the method that utilizes the generation of hypothesis phenomena concerning the theory that will help to plan for the strategy. The deductive approach can help to evaluate the relationship between concepts and different variables by measuring the data quantitatively for research (Woiceshyn & Daellenbach, 2018).

The participant data for the study was collected from the cross-sectional survey of health promotion fair that was based on two aspects demographic and clinical history of the participant. The Quota sampling method is utilized for the study as it set the different aspect before sampling to get the accurate data that can help to understand the effect of different aspect over the systolic blood pressure. The non-probability sampling is performed to retrieve more relevant data concerning the study and one of the methods for non-probability sampling include Quota sampling method. Quota sampling utilizes the predetermined characteristic to improve the quality of the sample and improve the more specificity of the results (Taherdoost, 2016).

The study set some inclusion criteria for the study that includes participant having a history of blood pressure, diabetes and smoking. The exclusion criteria for the study include non-smokers, normal blood pressure and non-diabetic individual. The inclusion and exclusion criteria are required to improve the quality of study as it set the value of the relevant information to be included in the study (Patino & Ferreira, 2018). The ethical consideration was maintained during the study informed consent was signed by the participant before the survey to reduce the chances of ethical conflict (Lee, 2018). The staffs involved in the survey process were pre-informed by the mails to properly instruct them regarding the study and all the necessary information.

The study utilized survey for the data collection as it improves the understanding regarding the participation perception concerning the systolic blood pressure relation with smoking and blood glucose level. A survey method for the data collection is considered to be a reliable and easy method that can include the open-ended question, multiple-choice or descriptive type. This method has decreased chances of bias results and it helps to predict more reliable results (Paradis et al., 2016). Data analysis for the study is performed by utilized the SPSS tool and all the data collected from the survey are included in the tool to obtain accurate results. SPSS is the tool that is utilized for the quantitative data analysis and it is considered to be user friendly that directly increase its demand in the market. It is the tool that can be utilized for correlating and comparing the data by using the parametric and non-parametric technique (Puteh & Ong, 2017).

Results of Applied Analysis in Health Research

The result obtained after the survey of the 163 individual and both male and female participated in the study. The data obtained different aspect concerning the aim of the study. The results are obtained after analysing all the data collected from the survey and different aspect are considered to understand the effect of the smoking and blood glucose level over the systolic blood pressure.

Demographic of the participant

Participant characteristic

Age group

20- 30 20

30-40 15

40-50 20

Gender

Male 35

Female 20

Blood glucose

Maximum 26.0

Minimum 3.3

Blood pressure

Maximum 184

Minimum 91

Relation of the gender concerning blood glucose level

The data predict that in the blood glucose level there is the difference in both of the genders that directly indicate that males are considered to have a high rate of history of blood glucose level that is about 52 when compared to the females that are about 30%.

Blood glucose level Yes No

  • Female 30% 70%
  • Male 52% 48%

Relation of the gender concerning the history of blood pressure

The prevalence of a medical history of the blood pressure in the male is higher after considered the data of the history of blood pressure. Females are having a history of blood pressure of about 45% on the other hand 70% of the males have a history of blood pressure

Gender

  • Female 45% 55%
  • Male 70% 30%

Relation of the gender concerning the history of smoking

The rates of smoking evaluated after the survey indicate that female have reduced history of smoking when compared to the males. 15 % of the females are considered to have history fo smoking moreover 30% of males have a history of smoking.

Gender Yes No

  • Female 15% 85%
  • Male 30% 70%

Descriptive information of the participant

 

Mean (SD)

Age

35

Blood pressure level

137.5

Blood sugar level

14.1

 

Frequency

Gender

Ø Male

Ø Female

63%

36%

Education level

Ø Graduate

Ø Postgraduate

Ø Doctorate

25%

60%

15%

History of high blood pressure

`62%

History of High Blood sugar

44%

History of smoking

25%

Discussion on Applied Analysis in Health Research

The principle findings reveal that there is a direct relation of smoking and increased blood glucose level with systolic blood pressure. Data indicate that individual having a history of smoking and high blood glucose levels are more prone toward the elevation in blood pressure. There is a need for further study to correlate the different aspect that is associated with smoking and blood glucose level that affect the systolic blood pressure. The strength that improves the result of the study includes using SPSS as a data analysis tool and using the cross-sectional survey method for the study. Some limitations that can hamper the resulting quality include the use of a small sample size that can hamper the quality of result and error in data prediction. Another study related to a topic having mixed conclusion as some study refers that the direct relationship between smoking or blood glucose level is still not clear and need further research.

Some other study reveals that there are some other factors that in combination with smoking and blood glucose level trigger the systolic blood pressure. The study can be utilized to analyse how smoking and blood glucose level can influence the blood pressure thus there is a need to manage both these factor to reduce chances of hypertension and associated complication. The study can be utilized in clinical practice improving the care process to decrease the smoking in the patient that can lead to elevated blood pressure which can cause serious cardiovascular complication. The diabetic patient can also be educated about continuously monitoring of the blood glucose and utilize self-management skill to manage the fluctuation in the blood glucose level that can lead to increased blood pressure. The study has highlighted some important point that can be utilized as a starting point for further research to improve the quality and relevancy of the study. Further research can be done to understand how the different metabolic function of the body leads to collaborate and initiate the elevation in the blood pressure concerning smoking and blood glucose level.

References for Applied Analysis in Health Research

Bavishi, C., Goel, S., & Messerli, F. H. (2016). Isolated systolic hypertension: an update after sprint. The American Journal of Medicine, 129(12), 1251–1258.

Khangura, D. S., Waqar, S. M., Brietzke, S. A. (2018). Hypertension in Diabetes. South Dartmouth, United States: MDText.com.

Lee, V. (2018). Beyond seeking informed consent: Upholding ethical values within the research proposal. Canadian oncology nursing journal = Revue canadienne de nursing oncologique, 28(3), 222–224.

Li, G., Wang, H., Wang, K., Wang, W., Dong, F., Qian, Y., Gong, H. & Hui, C. (2017). The association between smoking and blood pressure in men: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health 17(797), 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4802-x

Linneberg, A., Jacobsen, R. K., Skaaby, T., Taylor, A. E., Fluharty, M. E., Jeppesen, J. L., Bjorngaard, J. H., Åsvold, B. O., Gabrielsen, M. E., Campbell, A., Marioni, R. E., Kumari, M., Marques-Vidal, P., Kaakinen, M., Cavadino, A., Postmus, I., Ahluwalia, T. S., Wannamethee, S. G., Lahti, J., Räikkönen, K. & Husemoen, L. L. (2015). Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: A Mendelian Randomization Meta-Analysis in the CARTA Consortium. Circulation. Cardiovascular genetics, 8(6), 832–841. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.115.001225

Lv, Y., Yao, Y., Ye, J., Guo, X., Dou, J., Shen, L., Zhang, A., Xue, Z., Yu, Y., & Jin, L. (2018). Association of blood pressure with fasting blood glucose levels in northeast china: a cross-sectional study. Scientific reports, 8(7917), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26323-6

Paradis, E., O'Brien, B., Nimmon, L., Bandiera, G., & Martimianakis, M. A. (2016). Design: selection of data collection methods. Journal of graduate medical education, 8(2), 263–264. https://doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-16-00098.1

Patino, C. M., & Ferreira, J. C. (2018). Inclusion and exclusion criteria in research studies: definitions and why they matter. Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia : publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia, 44(2), 84. https://doi.org/10.1590/s1806-37562018000000088

Puteh, F. & Ong, M. H. A. (2017). Quantitative Data Analysis: Choosing Between SPSS, PLS and AMOS in Social Science Research. International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scientific Research,3(1), 14-25.

 Rehman, A. A. & Alharthi, K. (2016). An introduction to research paradigms. International Journal of Educational Investigations, 3(8), 51-59.

Setia, M. S. (2016). Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies. Indian journal of dermatology, 61(3), 261–264. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.182410

Silvia, R. S. Freitas, S. R.S . & Alvim, R. O. (2017). Smoking and blood pressure phenotypes: new perspective for an old problem. American Journal of Hypertension, 30(6), 554-555.

Taherdoost, H. (2016). Sampling methods in research methodology; how to choose a sampling technique for research. International Journal of Academic Research in Management, 5, 18-27. 10.2139/ssrn.3205035.

Tan, J. L., Thakur, K. (2020). Systolic Hypertension. Treasure Island, United Kingdom: StatPearls Publishing.

Thiese, M. S. (2014). Observational and interventional study design types; an overview. Biochemia medica, 24(2), 199–210. https://doi.org/10.11613/BM.2014.022

Woiceshyn, J. & Daellenbach, U. (2018). Evaluating inductive versus deductive research in management studies: implications for authors, editors, and reviewers. Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, 12(2), 183-195 10.1108/QROM-06-2017-1538.

Yano, Y., Stamler, J., Garside, D. B., Daviglus, M. L., Franklin, S. S., Carnethon, M. R., … Lloyd-Jones, D. M. (2015). Isolated systolic hypertension in young and middle-aged adults and 31-year risk for cardiovascular mortality. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 65(4), 327–335. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.10.060

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