Communication is a constantly evolving tradition that associates more meaning as time flies. Craig’s traditions of field communication was a theory proposed to bring forth coherence among the theories of communication (Marwa AH, 2017). He aimed to make his theory, the base upon which all other theorists could understand and identify the root causes and issues.
Craig’s theory comprises seven key traditions; socio-psychological, cybernetic, rhetorical, semiotic, sociocultural, critical, and phenomenological (Craig, 1999). The theory can be used for identifying cause-effect relations, analyzing opinions and predicting outcomes, connecting and empathizing with the audience, and to study the effect of communication on the mind.
The communication theory in the global media context is highly rich with certain range of ideas and with some growing profusion of theories. With reference to the socio-psychological tradition of the Craig’s theory, communication is just a form of expression, interactions and influences based on which the human beings communicates with each other based on which the behavioral changes among the human beings can be easily identified (Anneta, 2020,p.20). As per the Craig’s theory in the socio-psychological context, aims in explaining the personality traits, social cognitions which ultimately calls for the effective manipulation of behavioral causes to produce defined objectives along with the measurable outcomes. In the context of the global communication, socio-psychological beliefs as per the Craig’s theory helps in evaluating the interactional processes within the groups involving leadership and conflicts through which the group outcomes can get readily affected in order to understand the causal relations through which the communication processes can get effectively managed. The purpose of the assessment is to evaluate the impact of Craig’s socio-psychological theory on the global communication grounded on certain literature reviews and demonstrations (Gradesfixer, 2018).
Social psychology traditionally has been defined as the study of how people affect and are affected by, others (Kraus & Fussell, 1996). It helps the reader understand the cause and effect in relationships, which further helps us predict the outcomes of a particular strategy.
The tradition is an embodiment of a scientific or objective perspective. Through detailed and systematic observation, it makes it possible to discover the truth of communicative phenomena (Podgorecki,2004)
The socio-psychological tradition plays an internal influence as much as it plays an internal one (Maguire, 2006). The intrapersonal elements are in turn determined by the external elements such as; the community, culture, spiritual beliefs, and the immediate social circle. It has played a keynote in regards to the understanding of culture and group formations. It has helped people of like minds group and share similar interests while achieving a feeling of belongingness.
According to Kumriniso (2020,p.830))through socio-psychology the strong moral imperatives gets reflected through which the individual communicators can be able to undertake responsible choices based on certain scientific evidences. The socio-psychological trait theory of communication helps in reflecting the personality of the individuals where communication language itself portrayed as closed , self-referential game which itself gets emerged and extends itself from practical meta discourse. In the context of the impact of Craig’s theory on the global communication, three important communication situations needs to get highlighted like behavioral , biological and cognitive. The cognitive theory had been centered in the creation of different thought processing patterns by concentrating on the requirement of the individuals and also storing as well as processing the information’s which will lead to behavioral changes. According to the theory the time has come in rethinking the communication where it is based on three models that is linear, interactional as well as transactional. According to the linear model of communication, the ultimate message of an individual can be easily interpreted where the basic methodology is source, transmitter, channel, receiver destination as well as the creation of the noise source. Both the context and the culture gets impacted in the context of the multiple messages through which oral , written as well as electronic communication process can get easily facilitated (Marie, 2011,p.228).
In the context of the Craig’s theory, it is highly important to focus on the communication languages based on which the ultimate message is getting delivered to the receivers. Through this , the positive interactions gets developed between the receivers and the senders that is the medias where the content of the message also turns out to be important through which the communication moves from a linear to the circular processes where the participants acts both as a senders and he receivers of the messages. Hence with the help of the help of the socio-psychological communication process, the bondage between the individuals gets designed from where the person could acquire true meaning. Therefore according to the critical analysis of Oberiri (2018,p.26) , it can be stated that the socio-psychological communication field acts an influential and persuasion function based on which the individuals can get convinced and along with that the organizational benefits can also be achieved in a successful manner.
Through the communication process, the transmission of the messages along with providing feedback are some of the important criterias. The eight principles of socio-psychological tradition of Craig’s theory decodes on certain principles like development of an idea, message transmission, message encoding, decoding at the same time also using the information well based on which the feedback can be easily generated, accepted and at the same time used by the receiver through which the quality of decisions can get improved along with undertaking of the dependent actions. The social communication can be of various types like downward, upward, lateral as well as interactive.
The model on socio-psychological as the name itself suggests as one of the self-beneficial approach based on which the individual or the societal benefit can be well maximized. Hence the approach is ultimately dependent on the creation of the symbolic interactionism where the communication is purely based on the transmission. In addition, the theory revolves around the ideas of different identities based on which the individual judgments can get reformed and the interactions intentions can also get equally adjusted. The meaning of the socio-psychological have ultimately got generated and constructed based on which the society will not only get reformed but along with that the communicative sub-cultures and get equally strengthened (Nadvynychna, 2020,p.59). To end with it can be highlighted that the communication through the medias selects the stories base on which different ideologies and the representations gets discovered and developed through the undertaking of the surveillance operations so that through the new global communication channels along with the new global technologies can be able to extend the interpersonal surveillances both across space and through thee time.
This way the messages gets interpreted through the representation of particular ideologies and dialogues through the ideological underpinnings. For example , Facebook one of the current example on social communication where the behaviour of the individuals gets shaped and also different from each other based on which the correct form of social behaviour can get encouraged by allowing social sanctions and the feedbacks the individual behaviour and the decisions. For example the structure in the human memory and also the existence of the processes of encoding along with retrieval ultimately helps motivating individuals along with their goals and interests so that the un-related questions and along with that the similarities in the meaning can be easily evaluated with certain theoretical underpinnings and reliabilities. For example, in case of today’s society, the existence of communication between the octrs and the patients along with the family members symbolizes the socio-psychological tradition of Craig’s theory where the uses the words in such a manner and with the help of such a language so that the patients can easily understand them and at the same time can react positively to the medical terms (Oberiri, 2018,p.26).
These are some of the important techniques based on which the global communication in terms of the medias can get easily uplifted. The society for example needs to be adhered well with the international communication programmes based on certain fundamental principles and theories with the help of which the global messages can get well disseminate offering insights regarding how the global media systems , processes as well as the platforms can be able to functionalize properly through the creation of different advertising techniques like audience based writings , virtual designs along with the visualization of the data and the dta analysis. Again for example through television, the global communication in line with the Craig’s theory gets influenced through the online political activism so that the political processes within China can get explored well along with the multinational corporations.
The era of the modern Medias is found to be one of the main forces through which the trend of globalization can get easily accelerated within the human society. The functionality of the modern Medias ultimately helps in allowing the people to individualize the messages through the process of interactions based on which the messages in the mass media can get easily controlled, manipulated and also stored within a very limited space (Marie, 2011,p.229). Again the model of Immanuel Wallenstein’s global communication, world system theory got developed in order to understand the shift in the global power with the rise in the modern world. In the context of Craig’s theory, four different categories have been reflected like core, semi periphery , as well as external with the help of which the particular relative position in the global context can be acknowledged.
Craig managed to create a purely scientific theory that completely ignored the subjectivity in human attitudes. This only led to further confusion rather than meeting with the intent coherence. There was no common ground on which all the communication scholars could agree or disagree. (Jan, Ali Shah, and Marwan, 2017)
The Socio-Psychological tradition has managed to ignore the role of emotions and subjectivity. The very outcome of the listener or speaker is in turn determined by their state of mind and the degree of intensity associated with the background they are placed in.
The Moral-Conflict theory by Littlejohn and Foss (2011) helps us understand the limitations of Craig's theory while helping us clear out the confusion the initial would tend to create. Moral conflict theory explains deep moral differences and patterns of communication commonly associated with such conflicts. (Cole, Littlejohn, 2018)
Luhmann’s Theory (Riese, 2011) also manages to emphasize on the importance of meaning associated in communication and the importance of understanding to deem communication successful.
As being discussed earlier, it can be stated that though socio-psychological tradition have some positive impacts on the global communication , it also have certain negative side effects like it fails in manipulating the causes well in order to achieve the specified outcomes. At the same time it also lacks some of the good empirical evidences and at the same time it is also having limited predictive powers. In addition to this , the particular aspect of Craig’s theory fails in evaluating properly the individual differences and at the same time also provides superficial snapshots regarding the social processes. Again according to Zaikin, (2017,p.36) the theory also fails in integrating multiple levels of influences on the health behaviour and this is the reason, the conceptualization differs into the multidimensional socio-cultural orientation and hence the disparities in the communication often gets highlighted.
In many cases, it have been found that often the sender of the communication uses certain communicating languages to the receiver which in most of the cases not understandable and mostly failure in nature (Kumriniso, 2020,p.832). Hence the communication language should be made clearer to the viewer in the modern global communication world so that the non-verbal behaviors turns out to be socially useful at the time of conveying the information. In media world, the behaviour by the partners are also not equally informative and this is the reason, it have not readily been understandable by the receiver on the other end. Through the communication process, the psychological elements cannot be readily understandable and it is also getting varied between individuals.
Here the psychological explanations of the human behaviour allowed for the cause and effect relationship which is getting constantly avoided and hence the communication behaviour cannot be successfully predicted through this. This is the reason, the communication accommodation along with the symbolic representation of the meanings and the attitudinal changes have been avoided in this particular aspect which is one of the limitation of socio-psychological tradition. Hence there should be incorporation of the socio cultural interactions based on which the cultural values, roles, meanings as well as rules which needs to be well communicated and determined. The speech that is the verbal communication needs to be cleared and straight through which the religious values can be well objectified and exempted (Oberiri, 2018).
Socio-Psychological theory plays a crucial role in daily communication. From opinions to cause-effect relationships, the theory helps us understand and anticipate outcomes. The tradition, alongside the theory, is one among the key reasons why the speakers and addressers can deliver what the audience expects.
Craig’s theory, however, has proven to be purely objective, which tends to ignore multiple personality traits and emotional elements. Individual traits such as; mindsets, past experiences, emotional intelligence, cultural background, world views, and human attitudes, creates further confusions rather than coherence.
To conclude, the results of the study will contribute towards better understanding of seven traditions met model of communication as well as the emergence of the intellectual communication theory based on which the multidisciplinary nature in the field of the communication can get readily enhanced. Again it can also be highlighted that the communication processes needs to be clear so that the receivers at the end of the process can interpret the information’s in an effective manner so that the more fulfilled society can get easily promoted and can also be accomplished well through the basis of certain liberation values along with proper clarity and reasons. The communication should be based on model of persuasion like ethos, pathos and logos. Through ethos, the credibility among the speakers along with the audience values and theer should also present certain emotional affects through which the communication symbols can get easily interpreted and established.
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