Public Health Informatics

Introduction to Implementation of Telemedicine Initiatives

Public health informatics refers to surveillance, prevention, and promotion of health. This report assesses the role of ICT in public health management, delivering service. The assignment will highlight the review of Twitter accounts and address the barrier of telemedicine concerning Australia. The report also addresses the impact of telemedicine on health care professionals for the patient.

Application of Twitter and Public Informatics

Public health informatics can be described as relates to nursing, public health care facilities, and including hospitals as well as research for medical fields (Logghe, 2016). The system provides insights into public health facilities for medical fields.

Three public accounts followed are @Aumentalhealth, @equitylist, and @TheMarmot Review

Twitter as an information medium has a wider reach and can be utilized for public health informatics. The platform has microblogging updates with media, text, and poll support to address feedback, communicate and engage with users. The use of social media helps the patient in addressing different healthcare policies and different healthcare programs. The suicide prevention through one of the post shared provided support for coping with emotional distress. The message displayed is critical for user undergoing emotional turmoil to put forward their sentiments and seek professional help. Twitter can address the updates and provide real-time public health data. The real-time health update and public data mining for quick information processing as the first hand of information dissemination are recent times (Logghe, 2016). It has reasonable followers and has a verified Twitter account for its authenticity. Twitter through its use of keywords and search for information based on” public health information can provide detailed information on the recent developments, events, and news specific to medical events and public policy. The geographical dispersion and its connection across the platform have high user engagement, remote access to a large audience. Twitter as an online network allows detection of location and sending short messages on the platform as a direct message is a helpful feature by creating awareness about health outbreaks and nation health emergencies. The high user engagement is linked with users to connect with high network support and public health information.

Review of the account

  • @Aumentalhealth has celebrated Mental health month with infographics and suggested activities for looking after mental health. The post for 5 weeks marked the celebration of World Mental health day and acknowledging the month schedule through self-care tips and Social media informatics used tweets for tips to connect with others for users, tips to be kind to yourself. The Twitter handle has used social media as an education tool for tips on mental health as a common question. The Twitter handle had saved valuable information through chat for GP and calling the emergency number in its feed. The partnership through the National mental health commission and starting hostage #WMHD2020 for celebrating wellness along with #lookaftermentalhealthaustralia. The content of this Twitter handle is easy to read and most text-based. The importance of staying fit and need for self-assessment for mental health tour platform by its video messages encouraged to share their social and emotional impacts. The users have options to address the mental health and symptoms by enrolling board for ambassadors such as ClaireHooper for users to relate with aspiration figure and redefine their inhibitions and acknowledge the need for self-care as a practice to minimize the negative mental health climate.
  • @equitylist has listed itself as public health, equity, and human development account. The Twitter handle retweets on human mobility, COVID 19 virus case through UNDP, and James Hopkins University respectively. It included the real-time data number on disease spread for assisting users to take precautions. The data source with live trader through the US department shows the consolidated figures impacted by the illness. During the weeks' majority of the feed was decimated to updates COVID 19 The Twitter account was opened in 2009 and regularly share health information through diversified subjects with international importance. One of the posts shared in October on the feed highlighted OECD s country policy tracker on the novel COVID19 pandemic. The is vital for citizens to identify the improvement in public health care developed to support citizens. Similarly, the update on the vaccine trial showed the process implemented by the drug company, the cost of immunization involved with the current process, and facial information by the drug manufacturer on coronavirus pandemic. It has shared some retweets of jobs opportunity not relevant to the users. Some of the feeds shared during the week observation show “ life course model “ and COVID 19 known unknown which are mere opinion by the directors as public information cannot be termed as reliable. The media shared are public news to keep the patient and secondary users updates on current updates for health information significant as public information on ongoing trials and novel coronavirus. This helps to identify and reduce certain myths on coronavirus with a number of petite cases tested to update the users to stay safe and maintain precaution as the spread of the disease is high.
  • @theMarmot Review is listed as health equity and reducing health inequalities. The page has rented information not relevant to the health inequities such as the NewZealand election. The Twitter feed mostly retweets the option of Sir Michael Marmot and public policy projects in heath by Michael Marmot. The mortality and deprivation research by the institute of health equity is stated. The information cannot be stated accurately with local control of test and financial support policy with opinion and post of Mayor are personal thoughts on reflection for betterment, not actual measurements can be considered as opinion. One such instance is the retweet of Andy Burnham of Manchester on social inequality. The engagement of social media and the frequency of information is low. The feeds have used public support on food meals and addressing poverty by developing a sustainable system for schools. The Twitter page highlights the measure of health equity and global support in addressing the shortcomings by social equity moment as a response to the current COVID 19 crisis. The page has shown its recent efforts tracking the poverty policy attempts and recent development in the current field. It has used its page to address the false Newson spread of COVID 19 in its post and key risk factors relating to the illness.

From the above reviews, it can be stated that social media has helped in public health programs and awareness through their presence on Twitter. The awareness program creates a public support network and video based support for pastiest and GP to address common concerns. Public health informatics role of surveillance, prevention, and promotion of health is addressed through Twitter and can be made effective through self-scrutiny and analyzing public information. The Twitter feed has used public support and can mobilize support for public information based on the measure of health equity and global support in addressing the shortcomings by social equity moment as a response to the current COVID 19 crisis.

Critique of Twitter

The primary factor which makes Twitter inefficient in regards to the information is the reliability of the information source. The active base on the platform is a potential for news misinterpretation and misquoting with unverified source creating false information that distracts users from real identified information. The source of information may not be reliable that can create a problem for public health. The spread of wrong information can be presented on the platform. Twitter has used blue tick as a reflection for the people to know that the account of public interest is authentic. This badge next to profile on search results has significantly led to following genuine accounts on the Twitter handle (Twitter, 2020). Twitter s measure to curb false information tase action through reporting of false information and delete accounts in severe misconduct. Yet the magnitude of social media is largely to curb down on fake news and media, resulting in fake accounts developing self propaganda. Twitter for COVID 19 has specifically created transparency and first-hand information has joined the window is a welcome step for public information and support in the current crisis. This explores options for filtering that can ethically be used to map information to provide reliable public information and social support for the users. The partnership with the organization and empowering the latest research through its tweets and public information (Twitter, 2020). The measure part of society is not well informed and loses faith in the authenticity of information on Twitter conduct on health safety. Key attributes of Twitter that have benefitted the community relate to openness and discussion. The openness will increase discussion, mobilize public support by increasing awareness and site action within the community. The reliability and accountability for health updates need to be ascertained for descriptive access. Health privacy and patient confidentiality are causes of concern on the medium with a fact-checked response on the security and authenticity of the content. The use of hashtags and trends can lead to the prevalence of false information or less credible screw to be dominant in the media. Social media engagement of user is higher with readily available information, strong protection and content monitoring is required to create a safe and treatable network at Twitter.

Part 2- Telemedicine in Australia

Telemedicine uses ICT to overcome the geographical barrier and increase access to health care services (Almathami, 2020). Modern technology has enabled doctors to consult patients. An alternative care delivery model must be developed for the reach and effectiveness of primary care for continuity of care, health maintenance (Bashshur, 2016). The use of the internet provides an effective tool for cross country surveillance of infectious disease. low-cost telemedicine intervention and primary care will lead to the incorporation of the modality of care in mainstream healthcare. The technology is regularly used by doctors to perform follow up visits, manage medication, and provide other clinical services. Australians in rural and remote have health access. Telemedicine can improve the diversity of health services but there are limitations associated with it. Home monitoring through telemedicine can help in effective care for aged care facilities with a shift in care facilities and reducing the burden on physical infrastructure. Telemedicine has expanded from providing health care services at hospitals to deliver care to patients. Online consultation as a lack of knowledge from patients and resistance to the new approach are major factors with face-to-face consultation as the proposed mode of communication (Otto, 2019). Australia is one of the countries with a small density population. ICT issues that can be classified are the representation of metadata that includes the sector of health, housing assistance not done accurately hampers the process of telemedicine. The need for addressing the barrier is necessary for clinical consultation. The country has set up medicare funded telehealth for aged care as key steps in involving vulnerable populations. Australia has not set up a national medicine program navigating telemedicine in clustered approaches in urban setting areas with geographical population and varsity causing hindrance to acceptability. The management issue barrier lies in the organization structure on treatment desired and training for understanding the using ICT to deliver service through telemedicine. Non-interoperable and hard to handle factors have hampered the implementation of telemedicine initiatives.

The key barrier identified in telemedicine is funding and infrastructure. It is observed that telecommunication hampers service delivery. Cybersecurity and data privacy are susceptible to public information leaks. This refers to the poor internet services in rural and remote areas and the ability to access and acquire the necessary equipment. The patients still feel the need for human touch shows dependence on the tangibility of service as reliability. The results have shown that only 14% of the population uses remote appointments ( Healthcare IT, 2019). The management concern relating to spatial operation between patient and care provider as alter to the nature of the interaction is one of the management issues in adoption. Patient health care is sensitive, this has led to impediments to the implementation of adoption of telemedicine technologies. Infrastructure on building telecommunication lines, high-speed internet on use of telemedicine depends on the physical system and consistency of data and software application for seamless exchange. Data standardization and connectivity to GP for e-health has low acceptance inpatient care treatment Grossman, 2015)

Interoperability among health information systems has a substantial role to communicate and improving high availability. The creation of a repository for information will enable communication data development across the system from user to greater functionality (Blount, 2015). A structured for improving data standards are required for safeguarding patient data and assisting doctors and patient for the exchange of data is not ascertained through IT usability in remote areas and require robust infrastructure. 

Potential solutions include providing better technological equipment. The evolution of services has made telemedicine simpler. The lack of organizational support regarding the law and policy as health care insurance companies do not consider/fully support this consultation (Almathami, 2020). It was observed that some doctors preferred traditional services and were less confident in making diagnoses through telemedicine. Lack of support from the hospital in integrating and cross-synchronization limits telemedicine. The barrier relates to major finding in object-related, people related and prices related. The perceptions of health care workers show a lack of identified usage through star phone and video conferencing. These have added a burden on the health care workforce, decreasing cost and vast open spaces of regional Australia. The process-related barrier prevents the handling of application as guidelines of diagnosis of treatment need to incorporate telemedicine measures. The community and culture difference shows poor adaption in the rural area. Poor regional structure with identified malpractice and non-reimbursement of telemedicine use has impacted the use among healthcare providers. This reflects telemedicine is untapped that can be used to overcome the geographical barrier and ensure timely care for the residents.

The adoption of Telehealth shows management issues as integrating health process in hospitals, managing stakeholder expectation have shown its reduced concentration by geographic variable and socio comic status in the adoption of the same. Improving connectivity and facilities in remote areas for medical care requires consultation based on improved access.

The key recommendation is-

  • Developing funding models to support clinical for government and health services adaption of the policy. Patients and clinical training can be the facilitator for both patients and clinical. Telemedicine service should be readily accessible with integration facilities in hospitals and providing adequate resource training in equipment, technical support, and training. This can be developed by fostering for capacity building and fortnightly coordinator meeting to facile health care setting for ICT capabilities (Bagot, 2016)
  • Financial schemes are of high importance in rural areas with region centered implementation will improve communication as structured implementation is imperative. Developing health care governance for transparency and hospital adaption of telemedicine. Guidelines for the applicability of digital intervention and treatment of chronic illness is required. The success of telemedicine is structured on environmental factors (Otto, 2019)
  • The development of ICT infrastructure for accessibility and efficient service will help in removing the geographic barrier and patient-doctor engagement and shift to the use of telemedicine. Developing a balanced approach between technology-mediated interactions and face-to-face interactions. Standardization of clinical and medical informatics for data repositories. This will enable tracking and improving service delivery and data protection measure.

Reference for Implementation of Telemedicine Initiatives

Almathami HKY, Win KT, Vlahu-Gjorgievska. (2020). Barriers and Facilitators That Influence Telemedicine-Based, Real-Time, Online Consultation at Patients’ Homes: Systematic Literature Review. J Med Internet Res. 22(2):e16407

Bashshur, R. L., Howell, J. D., Krupinski, E. A., Harms, K. M., Bashshur, N., and Doarn, C. R. 2016. “The Empirical Foundations of Telemedicine Interventions in Primary Care.,” Telemedicine Journal and E-Health (22:5), pp. 342–375.

Blount, Y. and Gloet, M. (2015).“Adoption of ICT Enabled Telehealth Services in the Australian Context: Implications of Technology Use for Telehealth Workers," 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Kauai, HI, 2015, pp. 3571-3580, DOI: 10.1109/HICSS.2015.430.

Health cares about IT. (2019). What are the barriers to widespread telehealth adoption?. Retrieved from https://www.healthcareit.com.au/article/what-are-barriers-widespread-telehealth-adoption

Logghe, H. J., Boeck, M. A., & Atallah, S. B. (2016). Decoding Twitter. Annals of Surgery, 264(6), 904–908. DOI:10.1097/sla.0000000000001824 

Grossman, D. & Goldstone, P. (2015). Mifepristone by prescription: a dream in the United States but the reality in Australia. Contraception.

Otto, L & Harst, L.(2019). Investigating Barriers for the Implementation of Telemedicine Initiatives: A Systematic Review of Reviews.Twenty-fifth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Cancun,

Twitter. (2020). About verified Account. Retrieved from https://help.twitter.com/en/managing-your-account/about-twitter-verified-accounts

Twitter(2020). COVID 19 topic. Retrieved from https://blog.twitter.com/en_us/topics/company/2020/covid-19.html

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