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Table of Contents


Storm-Water Hydrology in Cities 

Requirement of Constant Storm-Water Control 

Project Overview and Description 

Permeability of Soil 

Land Porousness Identifies with Land Surface and Structure

Variety in Porousness

Type of Ground Cover Present

Stromwater Managemet

Stormwater Management Criteria

Design Approach


 design Criteria

 design Consideration


Rounoff Modelling

Modelling Structure

Emperical Model

Conceptual Model

Physical Model




Introduction to Storm - Water

The general target of storm water the executives is the command of water to guarantee least contacts concerning flooding, disintegration and the spreading of contaminations inside the urban condition and downstream. This administration procedure incorporates the connection between the measure of precipitation, the urban condition and geography, the current framework and the water bodies into which the water at last winds up.

Storm water is legitimately connected with different pieces of the urban water cycle: great and poor administration of one component can impact the effective administration of another. The chains between the various components of the urban water cycle can cause negative effects. In any case, these linkages can likewise be utilized to give constructive outcomes. Coordinated administration guarantees that intercessions are intended to augment numerous advantages in various pieces of the cycle while limiting negative effects in others. Powerful tempest water the board will deliver benefits in different pieces of the urban water cycle and condition.

The linkages inside the water cycle are various, which makes coordinated arranging an unpredictable business, so water organizations and substances must plan for incorporated urbanwater the board. Instances of the connections between storm water the board and different regions of the city water-cycle are :

  • Water-Supply : Storm water can used more than once legitimately for non-consumable uses and can likewise be, after treatment, an expected hotspot for enhancing urban water flexibly.
  • Water treatment: Storm-water coming water gracefully sources, for example, springs and repositories, impacts the water nature of the origin.
  • Wastewater assortment and handling: Storm-water is blended in with wastewater in consolidated sewer systems, which builds the volume and cost of wastewater treatment. Substantial precipitation can create floods in the system, discharging untreated sewage into the earth. Besides, storm water can adversely impact the activity of WTP, since it presents new contaminations and generates significant minor departure from inflow amount.
  • Water Make-up: Possible poisons conveyed in urban tempest water overflow can cause natural crumbling.
  • Ground water energize: The supplanting of regular vegetation with waterproof surfaces decreases storm water invasion into springs.

Besides, storm water associates to other city administration divisions like vehicle, children parks and diversion, squander the board and urban turn of events.

Every one of these connections is additionally significant from a vitality perspective. For example, viable tempest water the executives can lessen the measure of both consumable water required and wastewater rewarded, which may bring about lower vitality utilization.

In this report, the various segments of a urban seepage framework are depicted, and the fundamental highlights and favorable circumstances are created. Next, a few rules are disclosed to appraise the impact of utilizing them on storm water amount and quality. At long last, direction is given to assess the advantages and expenses of tempest water the executives, considering the chains between various pieces of the city water cycle.

1.2. Storm-Water Hydrology in Cities

Urban and tempest water are not, from the outset sight, consistently perfect, since the characteristic seepage frameworks (waterways, streams, wetlands, and so forth.) are adjusted and dirtied by urban turn of events. At the point when land is created, the hydrology, or the characteristic pattern of water is adjusted. When all is said in done, urban advancement expels the vegetation that blocks, eases back and returns precipitation to the air through vanishing and transpiration. Territory is smoothed and characteristic sorrows which slow and give impermanent capacity to precipitation are filled. In this way, precipitation that once saturated the ground currently runs off the surface. The expansion of structures, roadways, parking garages and different surfaces that are impenetrable to precipitation further diminishes penetration and expands overflow. Moreover, improvement increments both the fixation and kinds of toxins conveyed by overflow (ARC, 2001).

It can be watched, urban advancement produces higher and increasingly fast pinnacle release, with higher overflow volume and a progressively quick come back to low streams. The adjustment of normal stream examples may prompt flooding and channel disintegration downstream of the turn of events. Besides, the decline in permeation into the dirt can prompt low base streams in conduits and diminished spring revives.

In light of these adjustments in the nearby hydrology, urban communities have commonly been intended to expel precipitation from the urban condition as quickly as conceivable utilizing waste channels and underground funnels. Two kinds of ordinary seepage frameworks are generally utilized :

  • Merge sewer frameworks: Storm water is blended in with local and modern wastewater before being treated in brought together wastewater treatment plants and discharged to an accepting water body.
  • Different sewer frameworks: Collect just tempest water and release it to a getting water body with next to zero treatment.

Regular waste frameworks are structured dependent on recorded hydrologic information and their fundamental object is to evade urban flooding frequently with little contemplations for downstream effects.

Rather than the regular methodology, reasonable tempest water the board decreases the measure of impenetrable surfaces, disengage stream ways and treat storm water at its source, assisting with limiting the effects on nearby hydrology.

Reasonable tempest water the executives perceives storm water as an asset instead of a disturbance, giving unmistakable advantages like flood hazard the executives, natural security, city greening and the arrangements of an elective wellspring of water flexibly.

1.3. Requirement of Constant Storm-Water Control

Most of the significant issues inside urban waste frameworks are:

  • Combined sewer floods: Heavy precipitation makes joined sewer surpass limit, bringing about floods of untreated wastewater discharge to the earth.
  • Diffuse contamination: Non-point source toxins as substantial metals, oils, supplements and pesticides are scattered by spillover into getting water bodies.
  • Decreased base stream: Increases in impenetrable surfaces diminishes groundwater revive.
  • Costs: Centralized tempest water treatment is exorbitant and vitality escalated.
  • Heat island impact: The fast evacuation of urban tempest water decreases evapotranspiration, which brings about a more sizzling urban microclimate.
  • Waste of a significant asset: If storm water is quickly expelled from urban regions, it can't be re-utilized for non-consumable employments.
  • Down-stream flooding: The quick assortment and removal of tempest water into accepting water bodies, for example, waterways and streams builds the danger of downstream flooding.

In addition to these problems, climate change might be a problem in the following years, since it might produce important impacts on urban drainage systems :

  • More frequent periods of intense rainfall would increase runoff, particularly following periods of drought when land is hard and slow to absorb water.
  • More intense rainfall events would increase flooding and the frequency of sewer overflows discharging untreated wastewater into the environment.
  • Less annual precipitation would reduce the availability of water for groundwater recharge with consequent effects on water supplies and aquatic ecosystems dependent on groundwater.

Therefore, current problems of drainage systems may be worsened due to climate variability and larger urban developments. In order to solve these problems, urban drainage needs to move towards more flexible and adaptive approaches. Changing to a more sustainable approach can solve these problems and exploit the many benefits that storm water can bring to a city. 

Feasible Drainage Systems (SuDS) are structured to deal with the dangers coming about because of urban overflow and to add to natural and scene improvement. Bubbles targets are, along these lines, to limit the effects from the urban advancement on storm water amount and quality and boost luxury and biodiversity openings,. This sort of frameworks can assist with taking care of the recently portrayed issues adding to flood control, contamination control and giving an elective wellspring of water, as clarified in segment 0

Practical tempest water the board changes the impression of tempest water from 'an irritation that ought to be expelled' to an 'asset that ought to be used'. The key contrasts with the traditional methodology are :

  • a customary methodology, storm water is passed on aside from city territories as quickly as could be expected under the circumstances, while with a manageable methodology storm water is held and weakened at source, permitting it to penetrate into springs, if grade is sufficient.
  • Stormwater isn't treated in concentrated WTP, yet is dealt with utilizing decentralized characteristic frameworks, for example, soils, vegetation and lakes.
  • A practical methodology improves the urban scene and gives recreational chances.
  • Stormwater is collected for water gracefully and held to energize springs.

Urban natural frameworks are restored and made sure about. All the more explicitly, feasible answers for storm water the executives can accomplish one or a significant number of the accompanying advantages:

  • Flood Management: The lessening and invasion of tempest aqua during substantial precipitation occasions diminishes the pinnacle spillover, which decreases the danger of floods locally and downstream.
  • Pollution Management: Natural frameworks, for example, land, ecossystem and marshes have distinctive treatment capacities that can be abused in SuDS.
  • Protecection against disintegration: SuDS diminish overflow speed, dodging disintegration of riverbanks.
  • Alternative wellspring of water: Stormwater can be gathered and reused either straightforwardly for non-consumable purposes or, following treatment, for consumable use.
  • Amenity esteem: The development of lakes and wetlands has the upside of making normal environments, expanding biodiversity and giving recreational chances.
  • Climate-change adjustment: The utilization of regular frameworks to lessen spillover furnishes more prominent adaptability to adapt to streams from surprisingly overwhelming precipitation.
  • Economic proficiency: Many decentralized tempest water arrangements are modest to build and keep up in contrast with customary innovations. Universal suggestions have been created to empower the execution of progressively economical, adaptable and proficient seepage frameworks

Project Overview and Description

Our project is located at Joondalup campus in the north west part ofECU’s. The site is occupied by existing structures. On the west, south and east side of the property are composed of developed parking lots and public places. This territory is overseen by an arrangement of two sumps, which caught the aqua from the North West side of the grounds. The other sump is 1200mm lower the sump 1. The two sumps are associated by a 300mm measurement pipe. The entirety of this re-development need storm water handling and confinement. The proposed development will be served by an suitably sized storm water provision in order to meet Storm Drain requirements.

From this image we cn calculate the approximate area of tne project by using Google earth. Our area come approximetly near 11. 2 ha . The site is divided into two ares. All the development will require stromwater detension and treatment. The field is relatively flat and will be natural grass turf surface.

Porousness of Land:

Land porousness is the belonging of the dirt to convey water and air and is most significant characteristics to contemplate for fishing. Numerous variables influence soil penetrability. Now and then they are very limited, for example, splits and gaps, and it is hard to ascertain agent estimations of porousness from genuine estimations. A decent investigation of soil profiles gives a fundamental keep an eye on such estimations. Perceptions on soil surface, structure, consistency, shading/mottling, layering, noticeable pores and profundity to impermeable layers, for example, bedrock and dirt pan* structure the reason for choosing if porousness estimations are probably going to be delegate.

3.1 Soil Penetrability Identifies with Soil Surface and Structure

Size of dirt pores is vital concerning the pace of penetration (development of water into the dirt) and to the pace of permeation (development of water through the dirt). Pore size and the quantity of pores intently identify with soil surface and structure, and furthermore impact soil porousness.

3.2 Permeability variation according to soil texture

For the most part, the better the dirt surface, the more slow the porousness, as demonstrated as follows:






Too slow to fast

Loamy soils

Moderately fine

Moderately coarse



Avg. perm-eability for various soil apperances in cm/hr



Sandy loam




Clay loam


Silty clay




As per our project, type of dirt of north west side of ECUS Joondalupcampus is very sandy. So texture of soil is course and porousness is too slow to fast. Average perme-ability as per soil texture is ranges between 2.5 to 5.

Type of Ground Cover Present

Contingent on the idea of encompassing regions, there might be huge number of fixed streets and pathways, and other waterproof structure, for example, building making the progress. Different zones might be semi-porous; being to a great extent grass, uncovered soil, or gardens and hedge land. In semi-penetrable regions, strom water may will in general leak away.

Stromwater Management

5.1 Storm Water Management Norms

The examinations, arrangements and rules used to build up the stormwater the executives plan for this improvement were as per the following:

  1. Storm water Management Planning and Design Manual, 2003
  2. Structure Principles for Storm water Management Facilities, 1996
  3. Interim Storm water Quality Control Guidelines, 1991
  4. Storm water Quality Best Management Practices Manual, 1991
  5. MTO Drainage Management Technical Guidelines, 1989
  6. Ontario Urban Design Guidelines, 1987

The targets of the storm water the board plan are as per the following:

  1. a) Promote the energize of storm water overflow on totally grassed or pervious surfaces remote from the finish of-pipe framework utilizing "as source" part level controls.
  2. b) Promote the revive of storm water spillover toward the finish of-pipe framework after appropriate pretreatment to expel dregs and any assimilated contaminants.
  3. c) Provide storm water amount controls for the full scope of configuration storm occasions (up to and including the 100-year configuration storm occasion). All occasions inside this scope of tempests will be contained, cleaned and revived in the storm water the board framework. Satisfactory capacity limit will be given to guarantee that surface overflow won't happen under any precipitation occasion up and including the 100-year configuration storm occasion.
  4. d) Route the Regional Storm Event to limit flood harm to all open and private terrains.

5.2 Design Approach

 In accordance with ebb and flow practices and rules, the stormwater the board plan for the 132 Clair Road West Subdivision is proposed as a "treatment train" to weaken present advancement streams and on expel residue before groundwater revive. Upgraded (80% TSS evacuation) water keep up will be given by the stormwater the executives framework. All post-improvement overflow (up to and including the 100- year design storm) generated from the site and Poppy Drive will be infiltrated. The “treatment train” will include a combination of on-site controls and end-of-pipe best management practices.

 End-of-pipe maitain will be provided by a municipal stormwater management facility designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff for rain fall activity upto 100-year storm activity for a drainage area of 5.53-hectares. An overflow weir will convey flows exceeding the 100-year design storm event to the Clair Road West right-of-way.

Conveyance controls will include a private bio-retention facility, catch basin controls and oil/grit separators to provide quality control treatment for the runoff prior to discharging to the stormwater management facility. The oil/grit separators will provide 80% TSS (Total Suspended Solids) removal. The galleries are sized to infiltration and store runoff generated from the proposed roof tops for all storm activity upto 100-year storm activity.

Methodology of Storm-Water

6.1 Design Criteria

The suggested venture will make impenetrable zones that will need a storm water office to handle and keep the spillover created. The Bill Of Material levels needs all new development to moderate the effect of the new impenetrable regions in vegetated stormwater offices to address both treatment and confinement of stormwater. Per Sections 2.0010 and 2.00013 CPWS, the key appropriate general structure necessities and least measures are laid out beneath (summed up for curtness).

  • Top-Surface waste brought about by advancement will not be permitted to stream over neighboring property yet will be gathered and passed on in an endorsed way to an affirmed purpose of removal.
  • The affirmed purpose of removal for all storm water might be a tempest channel, or confinement or maintenance lake endorsed by the urban engineer. Live open pathways are endorsed purposes of removal after the stormwater has been dealt with.
  • The pinnacle release from belongings not expanded from statelive before the suggested advancement.
  • Detainment offices are needed where important to keep up surface water release rates at or underneath the current structure storm top release rate.
  • Detainment offices will be intended to give stockpiling upto the quarter year storm occasion, with the sheltered flood and transport of the century storm occasion. Permissible post-advancement release rate for the two, five, ten and quarter year occasions will not surpass the pre-improvement release rates.
  • Water Quality (Treatment) Facilities are required to encounter the scheme necessities of the ebb and flow City of PSSMM.
  • For onsite conveyance piping, the piping design should safely convey a century years design.

Pre Developed Conditions

The pre-developed conditions for this storm analysis are based on existing topography and the assumed Lewis and Clark condition of zero development. This pre-development assumption allows a comparison such that the post-developed run-off rates for a given area mimic that of woods in fair condition.

Infiltration Prevention

Infiltration under the proposed stormwater facility will be prevented by an impermeable geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) installed under the facility. This GCL is a manufactured product consisting of two layers of nonwoven geotextile fabric surrounding a layer of lower permeability sodium betonies needle punched together. The liner products typically come in 18- to 20-foot wide rolls and are laid down in an overlapping fashion to create a low-permeability layer. There are a number of manufacturers for this type of product including Terrifix Geosynthetics, CETCO Lining Technologies, etc. 

 These manufactured liner materials are a good option in contrast to customary compacted dirt liner by supplanting a thick segment of compacted mud with a slim layer of unadulterated sodium betonies. One truckload of GCL is equivalent to 150 truckloads of compacted clay. Typical lining applications include canals, storm water facilities and wetlands. Specified hydraulic conductivity of the liner material (per ASTM D5887) is 5x10-9 cm/sec or approximately 0.000007 inches/hour. The GCL will be overlain with a layer of non-woven geotextile, drain rock, and perforated collection piping that will collect storm water infiltration through the planting media and convey it to the discharge piping system. 

Manufacturer’s installation instructions for the GCL system include typical overlapping details for accommodating pipe penetrations and structures within the liner footprint. Note that no trees will be planted with the stormwater facility lined footprint. The 18-inch thick layer of growing media will support the water quality plantings in the facility

Treatment Methodology

The Western Australia Standards reference urban SWMM needs handling of the pollution reduce activity. It defined as two thirds of the 2-year storm event and corresponds to a 24-hour rainfall event of 0.85 inches. The required Water Quality treatment area is tabulated with the help of urban (PAC).

 Per correspondence with BES, the PAC Calculator may be used for drainage areas greater than 1 acre and does not affect the calculated peak flows for such an area. The 1 acre exceedance warning is purely internal for the Engineer to evaluate the facility size. As stated in the PAC user manual, the sizing of the facility still requires an engineering evaluation.

Detention Methodology

The Western Australia principles for Flow Control express that the "post advancement release rate for the 2, 5, 10, and multi year occasions will be that of the pre-improvement release rate." This undertaking is broke down as one bowl dependent on proposed evaluations to pass on all on location stormwater to the office in the south east niche of the site. Based on the stormwater facility design and shape, detention volumes were calculated.

Proposed Storm water Treatment & Detention Facility

The determination of the storm water handling and detainment office at the site is a standard best administration practice for storm water. These offices are exceptionally normal and average to all new turn of events. The capacity of these offices is to give both aqua grade and water amount prerequisites .

Flow will be controlled out of the facility using an orifice maintened body which is installed inside a stream control sewer vent. This orifice assembly also has an overflow to accommodate 100-year storm flows. In addition, there is a second redundant emergency overflow structure completed separate from the flow control manhole.

 With respect to the grading of the facility, the surrounding top of the facility is at elevation 539.0-feet which is the approximate grade through the center of the existing play equipment area. The proposed location of the facility has been developed with regard to the existing site topography and has been influenced by the following factors:

  • The facility needs to be positioned at the low point of the site to collect the complete runoff from all impervious areas of the site.
  • The facility needs to be positioned to allow placement of the flow control and overflow structure to be connected to the public storm sewer system.
  • The facility needs to be accessible and near a roadway for maintenance access.

6.2 Design consideration:

I assume the length of sump 6m and as the sump is rectangle so I take 4m width of the sump as rectangle sump would be ideal and the depth of the sump is 2.5m. Now my total volume of sump is 6m x 4m x3.5m which is equal to 84cubic meter which is 84000 liters. Here we have assume free board of 150mm just above the water level in the sump so effective depth of tank is 5m. The sizes are diced according to the volume.

Other assumptions made for design:

  • Grade of concrete: As per IS code 456:2000 we have assume M20 grade of concrete.
  • Grade of steel: As per Is 456:2000 we have assume Fe415 grade of steel. Because it has high tensile strength and ductility.
  • We assume bottom portion of tank as cantilever of 1m because tank wall are subjected to hydrostatic pressure on the wall where pressure varying from 0 at top and maximum at bottom so the bottom portion is considered as cantilever. So the bottom portion H\4 or 1m whichever is more is designed as cantilever.

Sump Pit Details

  • Sump pits are to be at least 750 mm (30") profound, and 0.25 m2 in territory.
  • Sump pits are to be fitted with a firmly fitting removable spread.
  • Sump pits will be developed of solid, plastic, or non-destructive metal.
  • Locate sumps as near the storm cellar outside divider as possible(1.2m max) on the structure that gives positivedrainage.
  • Sump pits are to be fitted with an opening to acknowledge a 100mm (4")drain with the transform of the funnel situated over the focal point of thesump pits' tallness.
  • Sump pits are to be set on even, very much compacted surface.

Runoff Modeling

7.1 Modeling for the Runoff

Modeling for the runoff guides in understanding the physics of the hydrologic phenomena. The hydrological cycle and what effects various parameters has on the runoff (Xu, 2002). Runoff models provides the visualization of water runoff due to meteorological events., topology, and the vegetation Devi etal. (2015) has provided a runoff model using equations to estimate the runoff from rainfall data, as a function of parameters describing the watershed.Choosing desired rainfall-runoff model is as per the need and availability of data(Vaze, 2012). The limitations of data, time, and budget reduces the choices to come up at desired model which is best suited for the purpose.

7.2 Modeling of the Structure

The model’s structure defines the runoff calculations. Some methods are easy which often use less numbers of variables, while others methods use interconnecting variables and thus get quite complicated. Model structure changes from simple to complex, as per the governing equations. Some of the models are tabulated in table number 1

Table 1. Comparison of the basic structure for rainfall-runoff models





black box concept with Non-linear modeling between inputs and outputs,

Water storage in catchment is used to get a Simplified equations

Uses equations based on real hydrologic responses and the Physical laws


Uses less number of parameters, is more accurate, and has faster run time behavior

Easy to calibrate, simple model structure

Incorporates spatial and temporal variability, very fine scale


No connection between physical catchment, input data distortion

Does not consider spatial variability within catchment

Large number of parameters and calibration needed, site specific

Best Use

In ungauged watersheds, runoff is the only output needed

When computational time or data are limited.

Have great data availability on a small scale


Uses Artificial Neural Networks



7.2.1 The formulation of the Empirical models

The Empirical models, is a data-driven models. It has non-linear behavior and it defines the relationships of inputs parameter with the outputs parameters as defined in Figure 3. The empirical models are observation-based models (Kokkonen et al., 2001. The general governing equation is as give in equation2.

In Equation 2.

Q : runoff output

X, Y: input datasets

Black box modeling concept yields the Empirical models. It is devoid of any physics(Granata et al.,

2016 Beven, 2012;). The machine learning techniques are used to arrive at such models.

Figure 3. An empirical Curve showing the relationship between rainfall, runoff.


S is the retention parameter,

P is precipitation

Q is runoff(USDA, 1986)

7.2.2 Conceptual Models

The Conceptual models is formulated using a runoff processes. It uses simplified components connected together dueing the full hydrological process modeling. They are reservoir storages based models and they use simplified equations modeling the hydrological process physics. They provide overall conceptual behaviors of the catchment area(Devi et al., 2015; Vaze, 2012). Water balance equation is modeled in the conceptual models , and it takes care of conversion of evapotranspiration, rainfall to runoff, and groundwater, shown in Figure 4 (Vaze, 2012). Each and every component of water balance equations are estimated mathematically and it uses the precipitation data as input to e general governing equations. The fluctuations in the water storage are defined as equation3.

Here is reservoir storage change.

P : precipitation

ET : evapotranspiration

Qs : surface runoff

GW : groundwater

7.2.3 Physical Models

Physical models is a mechanistic models which can also be called as a process-based model. It helps in defining the physics of the hydrological processes (Vaze, 2012). Physicallybased equations define the modeling aspects of meny regions of the hydrologic models and their responses. It predicts the behavior of flow in catchment area. The physical laws of flow and equations defining water balance are used.

Temporal and Spatial variations are dfined in the catchment. They aremade part of the physical models. The physical model is arrived at by using a logical process which resemples the real-world sitiation. The strength of physical model lies in defining the connecting paths between parameters of the model and catchment area physical characteristerization. This chaterrization is also a realistic one. Such chaterization is possible when real data is available, hydrological processes physical properties are well understood, and fine scales are applied during the computational modeling. Many process parameters along with the physical parameters are needed for the calibration process of the model. Physical properties of the catchment are gives the physical parameters, and physical properties includes average water storage capacity (Pechlivanidis etal., 2011). Physical models are catchment-specific or site- specific. The data requirement is quite large (Uhlenbrook et al., 2004). Most physical_models are given in the form of three-dimensional images,. The water exchange occurs below the soil, from above the soil surface in the form of evaporation into theair, as shown in Figure 5. Examples are VELMA6, VIC7, MIKE SHE8, PIHM9, KINEROS 10(Singh, 1995).

Analysis of Storm - Water

The hydrologic and hydraulic analyses were generated from a variety of sources including existing maps, field data, computer programs, standards, and reference manuals by experienced professionals.

As outlined above, the calculations were executed with the computer program AutoDesk Storm and Sanitary Analysis 2016 and City of Portland’s PAC Calculator. These methods were used to determine peak flows, pipe conveyance, facility sizing, and orifice flow control.

Conclusion on Storm - Water

In conclusion, storm water management is essential in ensuring the prevention of the environment , sustained development, and reduced physical damage risk and provide a better way to control the runoff coming from the sever system.

This project is aims at providing design solution in accordance with the best available practices for managing and controlling the storm runoff in the area under study.

We use rectangular size sump for the storage of water as this is ideal and as we know there is no pipe on northern side all storm pipe slope is on southern side for the flow of water through gravity.

This design meets the objective required by the north-western part of ECU’s Joondalup Campus.

Reference for Storm - Water

[1]Roesner, L.A., Amy Pruden And Elizabeth M.Kidner (2007). Improved Protocol For Classification And Analysis Of Stormwater Borne Solid, Water Environment Research Foundation, Colorado State University.

[2] Zoppou, C., (2001). Review of urban storm water model Environmental Modelling & Software 16(3) 195–231 [3] Foster, J. (2011). The Value of Green Infrastructure.

[4] WISE, S. (2008). Green Infrastructure Rising. Planning, 74, 14-19.

[5] Zoppou, C. (1999). Review of storm water models, canberra,australia

[6] Twahirwa, J. (2010). Evaluation of infiltration, run-off and sediment mobilisation using rainfall simulations in the Riebeek-Kasteel Area, Western Cape-South Africa Available at: [7] O’Loughlin, G., Stack, B., (2014) DRAIN user manual.

[8] Group, R. S., (1999). Hydrologic modeling inventory model description Form.

[9] Salarpour, M., Rahman, N. A., and Yusop, Z., (2011). Simulation of flood extent mapping by infoworks rs-case study for tropical catchment. Journal of Software Engineering, 5, 127–135.

[10] Darrien, Y. S. M., (2007) Use of infoworks river simulation (rs) in sungai sarawak kanan modelling The Institution of Engineers Malaysia, 68, 3–4

[11] U S Geological Survey, (2008) Summary of HSPF.

[12] Survey U S G, Summary of DR3M. usgs science for a changing world. [13] Lockie, T., Catchment modelling using SWMM.

[14] XP Software, (2013) Technical Descriprion XP Solution.

International Conference on Advances in Renewable Energy and Technologies (ICARET 2016)

[15] Board, T. R., (2004) Effective methods for environmental justice assessment, Washington, D.C..

[16] Ramli, M. L., Harun, S. Hydrologic modelling using HEC-HMS Sungai Padang Terap, Jitra Kedah, 10, 1–7.

[17] Hasan, Z. A., Hamidon, N., Suffian, M., (2009). Integrated river basin management (IRBM) : hydrologic modelling using HEC-HMS for sungai Kurau Basin, Perak, International Conference on Water Resources (ICWR 2009).

[18] Kalita, D. N. (2011). A study of basin response using hec-hms and subzone reports of cwc 13th National Symposium on Hydrology with focal theme on “Inflow Forecasting during Extremes.”New Delhi

 [19] Chang, C.,(2009). Application of scs cn method in HEC-HMS in Shihmen watershed - simulation of rainfall- runoff hydrologic model. Florida State University. Available at: http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/etd Recommended

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