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  • Subject Name : Strategic Marketing Management


Question 1






Question 2

Aim and Background

Destructive impacts of covid-19 in digital marketing

How digital marketers are responding to the pandemic situation

Short-term adaptation

Flexible channels

Long-term concerns


Rosenbaum & Massiah's (2011) Expanded Servicescape Model

Question 1


In 1992, Mary Giovitner developed the concept of Servicescape to talk about the environment in which the service is provided. Servicescape includes atmosphere, space, as well as internal as well as external symbols of stores, as well as relationships. She explains that Servicescape has an impact on customers because it affects achievement of external as well as internal goals. These show the importance of managing Servicescape in the store. Even though on line sales are only a small part of the food retailer, it is still part of the competition. Therefore, you can imagine or guess that servicescape has become more important. Managing servicescape is a differentiation as well as a competitive advantage. In addition, it helps create a consumer experience for customers.


Increasingly express definition for Zeithaml. (2009) characterizes a help scope as "a situation wherein administrations are given, a domain wherein organizations collaborate with clients, just as a particular item that encourages the presentation or correspondence of administrations. "Where Zeithaml et al. The possibility of Servicescape going about as a facilitator is to upgrade the Bitner thought. In 2011, Rosenbaum just as Macia finished the meaning of Bitner just as Zeithaml, clarifying that servicescapehas a few parts of physical, social, social, representative just as regular measurements. As appeared, servicescape is a finished idea with a wide scope of factors. Rosenbaum just as Massiah (2011) guarantee that social viewpoints are progressively keen just as are the most available. Moreover, some natural boosts for physical measurements might be connected for various reasons (they will be talked about later as groups just as layouts).Therefore, the examination centers around two perspectives. Physical just as social.

Bitner (1992) claims that servicescape has an assortment of multifaceted nature, however the physical condition has three key administration suggestions. The servicescape is a facilitator (you have to make it simpler for clients to achieve their errands), just as the physical condition fills in as a bundle, just as it's additionally a differentiator for different stores. In view of Zeithaml just as others. (2009), Rosenbaum, just as Massiah (2011) portray that physical measurements are the simplest to comprehend in light of the fact that they are recognizable just as quantifiable.

This incorporates climatic conditions, for example, temperature, air quality, commotion, music, just as fragrance, just as space, hardware capacities, format, furniture, just as different images, just as antiques, for example, signage just as structure. Servicescape is a lot of variables. For instance, "Quick beat just as uproarious music builds wake levels (Holbrook just as Anand, 1990).Warm hues, for example, orange, yellow, just as red, are related with energized fervor (Valdez additionally) Mehrabian, 1994), just as encompassing fragrance, for example, grapefruit just as different citrus-based flavors, expands the aggravating level (for example Mattila, Wirtz, 2001)." (Mattila just as Wirtz, 2008)

It has just been demonstrated that the environment can influence purchasers (Cockrill, Goode, Emberson, 2008; Bitner 1992, Rosenbaum, just as Massiah, 2012).A assortment of studies on the air are attempting to examine the effect of shop structure, worker, just as music collaboration on how retail locations see. Specialists set up five general classes of environmental lines: (1) outer lines, (2) general interior lines, (3) plan just as format lines, (4) adornment show just as buy focuses, just as (5) at long last, human factors. These five classifications gather explicit 57 pieces of information (Ballantine, Jack, just as Parsons, 2010).Here, the analysts center around light weight, clamor, music, smell, structure, design, just as social components (Q.v. 2.2.3.social viewpoints).

Caters stated: (2010) Lighting considers a few factors. Establishment of brilliance, differentiate, splendor, sparkle, beautiful lighting, just as lighting. In their article, they clarify that lighting can influence emotions, dispositions, acknowledgment, yet additionally environment just as spatial impressions. A few investigations show that clients are pulled in to light, yet the light can likewise stand out to specific items. Truth be told, as indicated by Quartier, Vanri, just as Van Cleempoel (2014), lighting can improve the intrigue of items in the store.

Clamor can influence people. Individuals can react to loud situations by demonstrating enthusiasm just as pressure. The facts demonstrate that pressure is a physiological reaction as hypertension, so clamor can cause distress. The physiological pressure reaction can be a consequence of a disappointment or feeling that commotion meddles with the exercises of the individual, even with typical natural clamor. In this circumstance, clamor is constantly a potential wellspring of worry through impedance with activity. Also, an excessively calm condition has a similar impact on the individual, requiring low-level just as elevated level foundation irregularity. The nonattendance of clamor just as commotion isn't the main factor of pressure. Other ecological conditions, for example, inordinate warmth just as residue noticeable all around, are comparative. (Critter, 1971)

Musicscape is a term utilized by Jain just as Badgare (2011) to discuss the music condition. This is a significant piece of numerous examinations with regards to the retail condition. Music is utilized in retail since it can influence acknowledgment, ID, affiliation, stockpiling, just as client shopping experience. It can influence buying conduct, subjective, passionate, administration assessment, just as, along these lines, buyer reaction. These show that music is one of the most significant factors in the retail condition (Jain just as Badgare, 2011).For music, four factors must be thought of: volume, beat, style, just as nonattendance (Sullivan, 2002).The Sullivan study shows that amount is the most significant component.

He additionally clarifies that it isn't the presence of music, however its discernment. Truth be told, music must adjust to the earth. Notwithstanding, music diverts the consideration of buyers, yet in addition can likewise diminish the nature of the time-assessment psychological procedure. Subsequently, music is likewise accessible for shopping (Yalch just as Spangenberg, 1990) just as pausing (Hui et al). 1997) (cited in Sullivan, 2002) this can influence both dynamic just as detached time recognition. .This wrong impression of time builds the time spent in the earth. From a showcasing angle, this is a decent preferred position: "The more prominent the presentation to an individual, the more open doors it should impact the person, just as to support attractive conduct (Sullivan, 2002).

"Music played isn't imperative to Sullivan, just as even in his artistic survey, Feirreira(2011) has assembled the discoveries of a few creators, (1) the music positively affects customers, (2) the high beat, the huge volume, just as the music isn't notable, so it expands shopping time as well as builds attentiveness. Be that as it may, as per Herrington (1996), in light of Yalch just as Spangenberg (1993), it is imperative to coordinate the flavor of ambient sounds with the flavors of customers' music. As indicated by Kotler (2012), there is a 65% possibility that somebody will change when they are presented to a positive sound. Thusly, the BGM is utilized to make explicit mentalities just as practices between workers just as customers (Milliman, 1982).

As far as spatial format, swarms are one of the most significant components. As indicated by Aghazadeh (2005), the main capacity of the design is to control the progression of traffic through the area. Three things should be thought of. To begin with, Distribution: In the retail setting, you have to advance client appropriation in various zones of the store. Second, arrange: Combine items just as space to propose client needs. Third, the comfort of putting things to give some accommodation to the two clients just as representatives. Moreover, in 2000, general store explore indicated that store comfort is a significant factor for buyers when choosing where to shop.

Truth be told, 95% of shoppers concur that the area is a significant factor, just as 94% concur that the format of the store is a significant piece of picking the area to shop. (FMI, Supermarket Research, 2000, cited in Aghazadeh, 2005) Zijlstra just as Mobach (2001) include that the format will likewise influence lining time, consumer loyalty, conduct, just as deals rates (Fitzsimons just as Fitzsimons, 2006 cited in Zijlstra just as Mobach, 2001).From an organization point of view, the utilitarian design must be intended to help clients just as serve the capacity of the store. Overseeing spaces, formats, signals, just as structures must be one of the organization's essential needs. This can be utilized as a differentiator, just as portray the organization's abilities (Zijlstra just as Mobach, 2001).Competitor (Bitner, 1992).

Bitner (1992) claims that the physical parts of servicescape are identified with the nature of the connection between the client just as the representatives that happen. She says the physical condition influences the idea of social communication. She says every single social collaboration are a piece of the physical condition since they propose social standards, standards, just as desires for individuals' conduct, just as help characterize the idea of the social cooperations. From the point of view of Rosenbaum just as Malaysia, the social viewpoint is the association between workers just as clients. Connections are a significant piece of the social measurement in many markets. Indeed, clients are not just attempting to address viable issues during shopping, yet additionally attempting to meet social just as mental needs.

Now, Massiah (2001), in view of Rosenbaum just as Bagozzi (1975), discloses that the choice to approach just as keep away from clients is influenced by physical improvements as well as by social just as compassionate upgrades. Edvardsson et al. (2010) (cited in Rosenbaum just as Massiah, 2001) advocates three social factors just as influences the client's involvement with administration arrangement: (1) client position, (2) client contribution, just as (3) representative communication. They additionally include that the social side considers a few upgrades: representatives, clients, the thickness of individuals, just as the noticeable sentiments of others (refered to in Rosenbaum just as Massiah, 2001).

They characterizes social help scopes as connections between clients, workers, just as clients just as representatives. In any case, it contains various focuses. Truth be told, the social parts of servicescape consolidate the connection between clients just as their areas (Johnstone, 2014).As you research this relationship, Johnston attempts to comprehend why clients visit commonly. He finishes up, "A few purchasers will get joined to retail locations for social connections."In actuality, for certain members, the requirement for social contact clarified why they visited a specific retail site all the time. That was the main purpose behind their visit: "truth be told, here and there it's not the spot that is imperative to shoppers, yet the connection between the spot just as the client, taking into accounts the quality just as style of administration conveyance. In addition to the fact that he includes workers in the idea of spot, he additionally strengthens the possibility that social cooperation frames the client's understanding.

Shoppers have various kinds of reactions to Servicescape. Subjective, enthusiastic, just as physiological reactions (Q.v. Servicescape influences buyer behavior).The show of others' feelings can cause passionate responses from different customers. Rosenbaum just as Massiah (2011) talk about the passionate virus of administration scales, just as portray customers as delicate to the enthusiastic hints of different purchasers just as market workers. These feelings influence the passionate condition of the buyer, yet in addition the subsequent intellectual just as social responses (refered to in Tombs McColl-Kennedy, 2003, Mari just as Poggesi, 2013).

Bitner (1992) shows that there are various kinds of reactions to servicescape. Intellectual, enthusiastic just as physiological reactions. Servicescape is a component of non-verbal correspondence (cited in Broadbent, Bunt, Jencks 1980, Rappoport 1982, Bitner, just as 1992).In this unique situation, the subjective reaction is the ecological effect on client convictions about areas just as in-store items. Servicescape gives the idea of the administrations gave by physical items just as the magnificence of the earth (Bitner, 1992; Hightower、2003). Therefore, servicescape may assist clients with ordering their organizations. For instance, some ecological signs can propose that a café is an exquisite situated eatery or cheap food (Barnes 1992 cited in Ward, Bitner, just as Bitner 1992), or can be perceived by a memory helper technique, as follows:

You can likewise expand your client's odds of receiving recursive conduct for good understanding (Chua et al)., 2010).The retail nourishment industry utilizes servicescape to recognize supermarkets by cost, yet in addition by quality just as item assorted variety. servicescape can cause more enthusiastic responses than intellectual responses (Bitner 1992, Zeithaml et al).2009).Some contemplates show that they are two parts of passionate reaction: (1) satisfaction or distress, just as (2) excitement (Bitner, 1992).Joy can be characterized as falling admirably in the spot just as escaping or animating the alertness state (Sullivan, 2002).If the client is happy with nature, it is bound to invest energy just as cash in this condition. The opposite is genuine in light of the fact that they will in general maintain a strategic distance from a terrible domain.


The study focuses on the social science context in marketing. For a variety of reasons, it is important to conduct this survey to examine the customer's perspective. A number of surveys have been conducted on the relationship between store environment as well as customer behavior. However, the survey has not been conducted in France. It is surprising to notice the lack of French food retailer's attention to service escapes as well as customer psychology regarding the fact that the grocery environment can affect the approach or avoidance decision. In fact, the decision to avoid the approach is made before the buying. For example, some major brands, such as "E.Leclerc" as well as "Carrefour", do not play background music in the store.

Not only does music boost wakefulness, but customers' interests as well as people store it when playing music. As a result, Servicescape is a powerful tool, as well as the marketers are considered an important element of successful marketing, so you need to understand it as well as learn how to use it. While researchers have found many studies on the social as well as physical aspects of service scales in various countries, few people have been concerned about French consumers.

To complete the existing literature, she decided to investigate the perception of French consumers of the grocery store's service cape. In addition, researchers are always interested in the techniques used at the point of sale. This paper is a good opportunity for her to learn more about this interesting area. Because the concept of servicescape is rich as well as complex, it was difficult to incorporate the entire concept into this study. As a result, the author focused her research on only two aspects: physical as well as social.


When we summarize this literature review, we found that servicescape has two main aspects: Physical as well as social. Servicescape has been proven to affect customer assessment of service quality, value, messages, as well as location images. This effect causes a variety of reactions: emotional, cognitive as well as physiological reactions. This can also affect your mood, attitude, as well as beliefs about the location, as well as can lead to a positive or negative experience. A good shopping experience may have a positive impact on the behavior of consumers.

You can create excitement, joy, increase shopping time, as well as have a positive impact on your customers' willingness to buy. In addition, servicescape must act as a facilitator, differentiator, as well as store package. Many variables make up servicescape: Music, Smell, Noise, Layout, Equipment, Product, Air Quality, Temperature, Crowd, Employee as well as Customer Sentiment...To understand the effects of air clues as well as other servicescape variables, retailers can make an effort to create a good shopping experience (Ballantine et al)., 2010; d'Astous, based on 2000).


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Assadi, D. (2012). Le marketing olfactif : à la recherche du parfum idéal | Journal des Grandes Ecoles. [online] Journaldesgrandesecoles.com. Available at: http://journaldesgrandesecoles.com/le-marketing-olfactif-a-la-recherche-du-parfum-ideal/ [Accessed 07 May. 2020].

Arnaud, B. and Hanne, H. (2014). Panorama de la grande distribution alimentaire en France. [online] economie.gouv.fr. Available at: http://www.economie.gouv.fr/files/files/directions_services/dgccrf/documentation/dgccrf_eco /dgccrf_eco25.pdf [Accessed 07 May. 2020].

Ballantine, P., Jack, R. and Parsons, A. (2010). Atmospheric cues and their effect on the hedonic retail experience. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 38(8), pp.641-653.

Bargh, J. (2002). Losing consciousness: Automatic influences on consumer judgment, behavior, and motivation. Journal of consumer research, 29(2), pp.280--285.

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Bitner, M. (1992). Servicescapes: the impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. The Journal of Marketing, pp.57--71.

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Kotler, P. (2012). Marketing management. Harlow, England: Pearson.

Question 2

Digital Marketing Strategy

Aim and Background

The attack of the covid-19 pandemic has brought the whole world at a standstill in all aspects. It has affected businesses, schools, health facilities, and socialization. Literary, everything has been grounded. General marketing and branding have not been spared. The pandemic has impacted all industries and businesses in one way or another. Different companies have either partly or entirely shut down. It has led to a rise in massive buying in some sectors, especially food. It is hard to identify all implications of the global actions to curb the spread of the virus because there are diverse impacts in all sectors.

One thing to note is thatcovid-19 effects will have a long-term impact even if we go back to our usual way of life within months. The business world that has been forced to close down or are struggling through these difficult times will take a lot of time to pick up if they ever do.

Covid-19 has not made it easier for any business as working from home sounds so typical these days. You all will agree with me that working from home cannot meet all the target goals of the firm or business. Will this pandemic have detrimental effects on our companies? The answer is, it is very natural it will significantly affect business

Handling a shift of focus with all the stakeholders is not only challenging but also draining as you cannot control remote workers. There is a change in what the business prioritizes, which will, in the end, affect our levels of dedication. Following all the changes taking place, there is the expectation of the business performance to keep going down. However, this situation seems like it can be salvaged by the advancement of the new technology where businesses can turn up to digital marketing. A sigh of relief, right?

In today’s world, almost everyone has a smartphone or any other digital gadget that they can use to access online information. Marketing through the use of mobile –phones is an equal manner for data and information dissemination to the company and its customers. Having been withdrawn from their habits, customers will require essential information. The best way to keep communication with them is through the use of digital marketing platforms.

The integral part of digital marketing is having the ability to intrigue and communicate with your audience, who needs answers about your brand image. Probably, if they get satisfied with the product, they are likely to buy. Whatever the product or service you bring to the table will likely interest them having had an encounter with them.

While adapting to the “work from home” initiative, most of the customers will rely on their digital devices. They will get connected through them so that they can acquire information from those businesses. Companies should use this as an opportunity to utilize digital marketing platforms and target more new customers. However, do not forget to connect with existing customers. Amidst the covid-19 pandemic, I believe digital marketing is the primary business knight and shining armor during these trying times.

Destructive Impacts of Covid-19 in Digital Marketing

We do not know for how long this outbreak will last, and the lockdowns have greatly affected the healthy life of people. Coronavirus effects have also made its path in the digital world. Here are ways in which the pandemic is changing the digital marketing world.

  • Doubts around the Ads spend

The reduction of the availability of goods may lead to the seniors holding back their advertisement dollars. This is because if a few products are making it to the market, then companies will invest in fewer bucks to the advertising firms. Wasting dollars on ads; the executives will withdraw from investing in the advertisement as they do not have available goods to sell. Besides, they are also making guesses that the coronavirus might be resolved by June. It is the reason they have forecasted the ad spend will be low in the first half of the year. However, no changes have been made on what may take place after that.

  • Cancellation of marketing events and further postponement

Several marketing events have begun being cancelled, and in case the situation becomes more difficult with time, there is a likelihood of entire withdrawal from the events. If the events can’t be held online, it will only get postponed as companies and any other institution are avoiding more massive crowds.

It is likely to bring forth more stress on the association of the content through digital channels, the lead generations, advertisers, and other vendors who may want to get out of their message.

Also, many organizations, schools, and many more are publishing urgent announcements to have their schedules interrupted as well as other aspects of life. These include complete closure of the facilities, events rescheduling, and putting up new available medical facilities and test centers as the number of covid-19 cases keeps increasing.

How Digital Marketers Are Responding to The Pandemic Situation

Short-term adaptation

Over 60% of the online marketer’s changes their short media strategy and making just 9% long-term decision as things are changing overnight. This is not a shock considering that the digital media is being used up at a higher rate as everyone has turned to the online lifestyle.

Flexible channels

The marketer is observing that it is in their best interest to move to the cheaper and flexible marketing channels where the consumer’s presence has an available impression. As long as the messages reach the target audience that what matters as everything is trying to save up their little coins. Also, we all don’t know what the future holds.

Long-term concerns

No one is sure of when the pandemic will be over for us to get back to our healthy lives. That is the reason there is an increase in online food delivery services. Either streaming or in the online news are benefitting from the online presence and would like to take much larger market share. Staying afloat during this period is essential. It will help you to prepare your marketing strategy and work smarter in holding on to your existing customer until this is over. You can do this by trying to keep in touch with them. It is cheaper, and you can manage to send all of the automated emails from time to time.


Even if it ended today, no doubt that the coronavirus has left an indelible mark in history. But the question is, how will you cope with this situation? We have come across several effects of the virus on different industries and the marketing world. It is everyone's wish and hopes the pandemic ends soon, and we all return to our usual routines we have always grown to appreciate. Those with digital platforms, this is the right time to invest more in your digital marketing tactics and gain significant shares of your prevalent market.

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Strategic Marketing Management Assignment Help

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