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Strategy and Political and Military Leadership Assessment Answer

Japan could not win with war in the Asia-Pacific once it provoked the United States

Table of Contents
TOC o quot1-3quot h z u HYPERLINK l quot_Toc3655340quot Introduction PAGEREF _Toc3655340 h 2
HYPERLINK l quot_Toc3655341quot World War 1 and aftermath PAGEREF _Toc3655341 h 3
HYPERLINK l quot_Toc3655342quot Asia-Pacific War PAGEREF _Toc3655342 h 4
HYPERLINK l quot_Toc3655343quot Pearl Harbor attack PAGEREF _Toc3655343 h 4
HYPERLINK l quot_Toc3655344quot Japan in World War II PAGEREF _Toc3655344 h 5
HYPERLINK l quot_Toc3655345quot Rise of United States PAGEREF _Toc3655345 h 6
HYPERLINK l quot_Toc3655346quot Roosevelts leadership and military excellence PAGEREF _Toc3655346 h 6
HYPERLINK l quot_Toc3655347quot U.Ss strategy and Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings PAGEREF _Toc3655347 h 7
HYPERLINK l quot_Toc3655348quot Failure of military and political leadership in Japan PAGEREF _Toc3655348 h 8
HYPERLINK l quot_Toc3655349quot Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc3655349 h 9
HYPERLINK l quot_Toc3655350quot References PAGEREF _Toc3655350 h 10
 

Introduction

Asia-Pacific war was the initial phase of the Second World War. It started on 7th December 1941 and was fought majorly in the Pacific and Asia. It started with the Pearl Harbor attack, wherein an airstrike was carried out by Japan on naval bases of Hawaii and destructed the U.S Pacific fleet. The attack on Pearl Harbor seemed like a victory for Japan, but it was the most unfortunate decisions, as it united opinions of people in U.S. It made them more determined to enter the war. Following the first year Japan witnessed many victories, Japanese troops occupied Manila. Allies were further having difficulty in communicating with Australia and destruction of naval bases further made Japanaposs way easier to sountheast Asia. But the scenario changed after U.S decided to join the Allied powers. This attack costed Japan to lose the war. This study will highlight the background of the Asia-pacific war which roots to the World War I. This study revolves around the causes and consequences of the war, and how Japan surrendered in the war after it provoked U.S.

Background

World War I and World War II are considered to be parts of one gigantic global conflict. The aftermath of World War I witnessed downfall of the monarchy in Germany. Drastic political, economic, and cultural changes were observed in Europe and Asia. Treaty of Versailles resulted in plummeting German military in terms of machines, troops, armaments, and strength. Also, it had to recompense for the destruction caused as a result of the war. Adolf Hitler, after becoming chancellor of Germany, was annexed with Germanyaposs situation. Treaty of Versailles though ended the First World War but was also one of the cardinal causes of instigation of the Second World War. This treaty left the German government in disarray, as people were starving and the economy was disturbed. Italian Fascism, Japanese militarism and invasion of China contributed to the major causes of World War II. World War II began two decades after the end of world war I.

World War II is considered as one of the lethal attacks of all time. It initiated with the invasion of Germany in Poland. Following this event, France and Britain affirmed war on Germany. Second World War left both involved powers in a state of depression and damage on social, political and economic grounds. Asia-Pacific war covered a major portion of the Pacific Ocean and south-east Asia. The asia-pacific war began in December 1978, when Japan annexed Thailand and targeted colonies of Singapore, Malaya and Hong Kong. It also attacked military of U.S and marine bases of Hawaii, Guam, and Philippines. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor on 7th December in 1941, which enforced U.Ss entrance in the world war. It declared war on Japan the next day.

World War 1 and aftermath

Wars leave impact on the participating countries and it takes a lot of time for those countries to recover from the damage occurred. One such war is the First World War which resulted in huge damage to property and lives. World war I initiated in 1914, wherein the central powers and the allied powers fought against each other. It began with the assassination of Austrian archduke and Franz Ferdinand. Imperialism was one of the cardinal causes of the war. Lands owned by France and the British Empire were the reason behind increased rivalry with Germany. Britain and Germany were involved in a fierce competition for capturing foreign lands. Germany invaded Belgium which resulted in tension between the nations. It resulted in declaration of war by Britain on Germany. War majorly broke out in European countries which were the major target of destruction. U.S remained neutral so as to avoid damage to its economy it, however, supported some countries in providing weapons and tanks so as to gain monetary succor. But after knowing about Germanys urge to Mexico about attack on U.S, U.S soared into the war. War began and destruction traced along. German political system was unable to counterfeit suitable implementations for tactical control. Japan, which was initially neutral in the war, on the insistence of British bodies participated in the war and joined Entente powers. Japan seized German possessions. This war resulted in a turning point in the dogmatic, communal and financial climate of participating countries as well as the world. It lasted for four years. It resulted in the relocation of millions of armed personnel, majority of which were Europeans.

Asia-Pacific War

Asia-Pacific war formed the theatre of the Second World War. Roots of the Second World War are rooted in the Asia-pacific war. This war was fought over in the Pacific, Southeast Asia, and China. Northeast coast of British Malaya was primarily targeted by Japanese troops on 8th of December 1941which marked the initiation of the Asia-pacific war. Japan progressed and successfully targeted other locations in Britain and made their massive attack at Pearl Harbor in U.S. Pearl Harbor attack was a surprise attack on American marine base by Japanese troops which caused vast damage. Japan attacked U.S by targeting Pearl Harbor and locations at Hawaii, which immensely damaged American fleet. As a result of which, U.S took time to retort and there were no solemn interferences by U.S. Japan witnessed a series of military success. Japan invaded in Thailand, and pressurized it to join Japan and stand against U.S. Later, war was declared by U.S on Japan. Aftermath of this, Germany and U.S also declared war against each other. Turning point in the war came, when the battle of mid-way was won by the American naval forces. U.S attacked Japanese firm islands and forced the Japanese military to withdraw from the island of Guadalcanal. Until 1945, the Japanese military witnessed success by defending the Chinese mainland. But the scenario changed after U.Saposs military action involving bombing of Japanese cities.

Pearl Harbor attack

Pearl Harbor attack was one of the deadliest attacks witnessed by U.S. Japan attacked naval bases in Pearl Harbor in order to precipitate U.Saposs participation in the war. It was basically a defensive act so as to prevent the American Pacific fleet from prying in the military actions in Southeast Asia against the territories of U.K and Netherlands. Oahu Island and Hawaii were targeted by Japan through an aerial attack. The strike worsened relations between the two countries. Some reasons for attack often date back to the year 1939 when U.S terminated the treaty of commerce and navigation with Japan and restricted the export of materials to Japan required for war. This caused the instigation of unhealthy relations between the two nations. Between the year 1940 and 1941, tension between the two nations peaked. Japan negotiated with U.S until the Pearl Harbor attack, and after the attack mounted tensions concluded up to the stage of war. This attack included passage of fleets including aircraft carriers, battleships, and cruisers. These attacks crippled the U.S naval, and lead to destruction on the bases which resulted in heavy damage. Public opinions in U.S obligated the government to enter the war. As a result of this attack, U.S formally entered World War II against Japan. U.S joined the Allied powers and actively participated in the war.

Japan in World War II

In the 1930s, U.S was going through the great depression and was figuring out ways to emerge out of the depression. U.S was at the edge of war and was thus trying to escape from the depression, while Japan had already made out its way. In rural areas where poverty and depression were widespread, soldiers migrated to Japanese army to seep from devastating effects of the depression. By mid- 1930s depression in Japan ended by governmental efforts and inflation in the military. During, that course of time, free trade was not practiced and was in opprobrium. Japan limited its intakes from America and began to protect its own few resources. But since most of its products indispensable for the military, such as rubber and oil were obtained from America, it encountered a lot of problems. Economic factors thus possessed a major role in outlining Japanese expansion in south-east Asia. The political structure of Japan in 1931-1945 was increasingly influenced by the military of the country. During this period a ruling group consisting of a few men used to dominate the government and their functions involved coordinating military, parliament and other governmental bodies. But after this group abolished, Japan took a major portion of the northeast region under its control. This, in turn, gave rise to self-directed behavior of the military in Asian regions. From 1937 onwards, Japan was involved in war with China, and the military imposed their policies on the government and people.

Existing government control on opinions of the public including media and syllabi being taught in schools were used by wartime system. Japanaposs political system was inclined towards authoritarian type as compared to Germanyaposs totalitarian type administrative system. Japanese government failed to gain control over the economy, and all the oil industries established so as to provide oil to the military were interested in economic opportunities rather than patriotic commitment to the military. During world war II, new ideologies framed in Japan, constituting of the emperor-based ideology, which emerged from the idea of the political system to unite the country against the western encounters. Shinto region, which is native to Japan, had an entirely different belief related to the emperor. They believed of emperor as a shadowy figure or a pope who descended from heaven. Japanese ideology dictated people to sacrifice for their country. People sacrificed their lives for the country which is an example of extreme patriotism exhibited by the Japanese people. People took a lot of pride in their achievements and lived with the racial slurs they inhibited from the western nations. During the period of world war, artists in Japan and America molded the attitudes of the people of that tenure. Propaganda used by both the nations during wartime was based more over the culture being practiced in the nations and the war or military. Japanese military incorporated a huge number of young military personnel who were willing to sacrifice for their country.

The military was overconfident regarding its capabilities due to increased strength. Japan often undervalued drive of other countries and thus entrenched to misleading cultural and racial stereotypes. Arrogant behavior of the Japanese military and racial prejudice displayed by them caused resentment of Asia in welcoming Japanese people. Some Southeast Asian nations are still reluctant in welcoming Japanese culture.

Rise of United States

Roosevelts leadership and military excellence - After World War 1, U.S twigged the policy of non-interference in international affairs. It advocated peace and decided to isolate from the international activities concerned with violence. Though European situations tensed but still, U.S canned the policy of being neutral. In 1939, when the scenario changed, Germany invaded Poland, Roosevelt, president of U.S being a robust leader decided to revise the neutrality act. He followed the situational approach and aligned his goals with the nationaposs goal. He looked for opportunities that could aid the situation of U.S and was ambitious regarding his role. During the 1940s, when it was unclear about what aid should be provided to the allies, Roosevelt consulted the public for their opinions about the same most of the American people supported Britain but however coveted to stay away from the war. America as a result of increasing tension with Japan prohibited the export of scrap iron and steel to Japan. By the time of 1941, Japan and U.S entered in a complex situation, as a result of which Japan was left with limited stocks of oil. Japan as a part of a preventive act decided to eliminate the U.S Pacific fleets so as to conquer Southeast Asia and thus acquire crude oil stocks.

As a part of their strategy, Japan attacked U.S and targeted its naval bases in Hawaii. Around 18 ships of war at Pearl Harbor were damaged on a massive scale. This surprise attack came as a tremor not only to Roosevelt and the nation but to other nations as well. Roosevelt and the political bodies of U.S undertook plans to expand military and execute successful counter operations. American people were left in shock and they demanded the war. Roosevelt displayed patience and reassured the nation and waited for a while to strengthen the military. In 1942, Roosevelt established a war production board to administer the defensive agencies and to synchronize armament. During this reign, Roosevelt trained the military and made the nation ready for the war. He also persuaded Congress for annulment of embargo provision act so as to supply arms to Britain and France. He provided lend-lease aid to Britain and boosted the military. Under Rooseveltsapos leadership, U.S witnessed inflation in the manufacturing of tanks, ships, and aircrafts for itself and for the allied powers. This contributed to the success of the allied powers. America planned and executed an attack against Nazis in Western Europe proved to be a great success of U.S military. All credit for this success was credited to the military brilliance and virtuous leadership of General Dwight D. Eisenhower. General Douglas MacArthur and Fleet Admiral Chester Nimitz of the U.S military played a significant role in the success of Allied power in the Pacific. U.S witnessed a series of success in the World War II, including the battle of mid-way, Allied invasion of France and attack at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. War ended with the surrender of the Axis powers in 1945.

U.Ss strategy and Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings - Prior to the Pearl Harbor attack, Japan witnessed a series of successful operations. But after its Pearl Harbor attack, the Japanese government including the leader Fumimaro Konoye quoted that Japan could not win the war against U.S, but at the same time, it was important to eliminate American fleets. Pearl Harbor attack tensed the already distressed situations between the nations. This led to U.Ss formal entry into the war. It joined the Allied powers and formally became a part of the war and operated against Japan. After the initial three year of the war, due to increased dominance of the Allied powers, it became difficult for Japan to counteract. Japanese military was strong in terms of strength but most of them lost hopes to win the war. Many Japanese naval leaders often concluded that Japanese perception regarding the victory was meagre. During the final stages of war, U.S decided to drop atomic bomb in Japan. Hiroshima became the immediate target because it was industrially momentous. Also, it had military headquarters and aircraft manufacturing center. It facilitated the shipment of troops and was the communication centre during the war. After precise planning, an atomic bomb was dropped in Hiroshima. Around 80,000 people were killed in the bombing and many were injured. As per U.S survey, around 4.7 square miles of the city was massively destroyed by the bomb. This left the Japanese government in anarchy.

Three days later, U.S dropped another atomic bomb in Nagasaki. Nagasaki was chosen as a target because of its industrial activities and its contribution in production of ships, equipment and other war materials. As a result of it, around 40,000 people were killed and property was immensely damaged. This bombing further disordered the Japanese government. Total destruction ranged within a radius of about more than one kilometer. Leading steel industry of Japan, Mitsubishi steelwork was severely damaged. Destruction caused at Hiroshima was not enough to convince Japan to surrender therefore it became important for U.S to operate attack on Nagasaki also. It resulted in the collapse of the Japanese government, and a debate session was held over surrendering in front of the Allied powers.

Failure of military and political leadership in Japan - Pacific war began with a series of success for Japanese military, and this success was beyond their expectations. Leadership was strong enough to attack Pearl Harbor. In the initial months after the attack, Japan invaded Hong Kong and Singapore. But Pearl Harbor attack had already provoked U.S. Contrary to the hopes of some optimistic Japanese leaders, U.S attacked Japan. And after operating two simultaneous explosive attacks, Japan was induced to surrender. Japans military distorted. Leaders of the military forces lost hopes after the bomb attacks. They failed to secure their lines of communication and to harmonize their industrial output. Collapsing of the military and political leadership was the reason that Japan was left with no other alternative. By attacking Pearl Harbor, Japan confronted a vast economically and industrially stable world power. According to George Baer, author of war based novel, stated that U.S navys shipbuilding cost in 1990s was equal to that of Japans whole decades shipbuilding cost. It makes it clear that U.S was financially stronger power and was much ahead than Japan in terms of economic growth.

Conclusion

Wars are fatal and so are the after effects. It not only results in causalities from the military but also descends the economy of the nation. One such war, Asia-pacific war has been elaborated in this study. Though the Pearl Harbor attack observed many deaths and destruction, at the same time also united the nation. The nation stood against Japan and decided to counteract against such destructive activities. On a concluding note, it can be inferred from the study that, Japan though had many powers and was successful in invading robust countries like China, but it should have realized the authority of U.S when combined with the Allies. The United States was an imperative obstacle for Japan in the Asia-Pacific war. Before provoking U.S Japan successfully invaded in Manchuria and brutally attacked China. It became a part of the Axis powers along with Germany and Italy. But after provoking U.S, operations of Japan were limited. U.S used its modernized equipment and powers against Japan. This resulted in collapsing of Japanese government and finally leading to its surrender. This study has expounded all essential aspects related to the war, highlighting the political and military leadership. Therefore on a concluding note, it is important for any nation to twig to political and military association in order to follow a successful strategy, which Japan failed to incorporate.

References

Brody, J. Kenneth. Crucible of a Generation How the Attack on Pearl Harbor Transformed America. Routledge, 2017.
Earhart, David C. Certain Victory Images of World War II in the Japanese Media Images of World War II in the Japanese Media. Routledge, 2015.
Ivey, Gregory J. quotAustralian soldiers in Asia-Pacific in World War II Book Review.quot Sabretache 59, no. 2 (2018) 56.
Jackson, Richard. quotWriting the war on terrorism Language, politics and counter-terrorism.quot (2018).
Minowa, Yuko, and Russell W. Belk. quotGift Rituals and Nationalism of Wartime Japan.quot Explorations in Globalization and Glocalization Marketing History through the Ages (2017).
Neiberg, Michael S. The Treaty of Versailles A Concise History. Oxford University Press, 2017.
Russett, Bruce M. No clear and present danger a skeptical view of the United States entry into World War II. Routledge, 2018.
Selden, Kyoko Iriye, and Mark Selden. The Atomic Bomb Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Routledge, 2015.
Sherman, David. quotWilliam Friedman and Pearl Harbor.quot Intelligence and National Security 33, no. 3 (2018) 309-323.
Tsurumi, Kazuko. Social change and the individual Japan before and after defeat in World War II. Princeton University Press, 2015.

 

 

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