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  • University : Macquarie University
  • Subject Name : Political Sciences

Contents

Introduction

Marxist Analysis

Realist Analysis

Similarities between Marxist and realist analyses

Differences between Marxist and realist analyses

Conclusion

References:

Introduction

Human resources often discuss the differences in antisocial and prosocial elements (Candnk, 2019). Critical realism seems to be taking the ground of Humanities and human studies in society. The scholars related to this study have found areas such as social Theory, management study, organization, law, and economics. Marxism has been in discussion for decades, but despite being out of fashion, it still is one of the critical intellectual perceptions in the modern era. The rising surge of anti-capitalists has also led to the discovery of sentiment that has given valuable lessons that have been in circulation for more than one and a half centuries. (Brown, Fleetwood & Roberts, 2001)

This essay aims to explore the rise of concepts of Marxism and realism ways of societal evaluation. It elaborates how the class struggle and class differences led to the downfall of capitalism and monarchical notions, while the concepts of socialism and Marxist ideas took an extraordinary stronghold society. That structure pertained for more than half of a century. The events took a turn, and the world now hangs between the balance of capitalism and socialism. It also declares how realism started to develop and took hold in the societal school of thought. This study also talks about the similarities and differences in them.

Marxist Analysis

The socio-economic analysis, which views the class system and social conflict instead of interpretation of materialism, is the Marxist method of analysis, also known as Marxism. It is considered that the argumentative view of the social transformation during the description of the construction and deconstruction of societal sectors in history. The name of this philosophical view is based on the nineteenth-century German philosopher, Karl Marx, and his ally Friedrich Engels. There is no definitive Marxist theory, as with time, this school of thought has evolved into various branches.

The numerous schools of thought that have developed over the century but a lot prefer to emphasize classical Marxism and reject the modified aspects of the analysis. Many schools of thought have tried to merge the Marxian and non-Marxian concepts, which has led to nothing but inconsistent conclusions only. (Ollman, NA)

This school of thought majorly aims to analyze the economic Cavities that fulfill the human needs and his material conditions in the same terms of materialism. This Theory types to define the social phenomena battles in the given society. Therefore, it resumes a form of economic organization to influence other social events such as political Institutions, legal and judicial systems, social and cultural relationships, ideologies, and aesthetics. Karl Marx explained that there are productive resources of a society data in the mundane form when interacting with the relations to production. These forms turn into shackles or hindrances that give rise to revolutionary eras within the society. When social contradictions arise in a community, the classes' inefficiency takes a severe form, which comes out as a burst of class struggle. (Vidal et al., 2018)

The class struggle began to take its roots in Europe's continent by the mid of nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. Before that, the social structures seemed to be divided into the typical capital mode of production, where the capital is suitable for all the methods of production in his hand, and the working-class good just is employed as mere labor at minimum wages. Struggle shows the material differences between the minority, the capitalist who owns the means of production. On the other hand, a major part of the population, the working class, would produce the goods and services under the capitalist and return of pages. Marx's analysis concludes that the system of capitalism exploits the working class. Their opinion is that in a socialist economy, the means of production would go under cooperative ownership, mainly the elected government. as the base of production would no more be the acquiring of profits, the focus would shift to the criteria of satisfaction of the human being. (Chappelow, 2019)

This school of thought led to the generation of the idea of Marxian economics. Efforts were to denote that capitalist structure of capitalism is not sustainable enough to improve the living standard of its population as it's compelling need to increase the profits with also involves cutting the basis of the employees minimizing the social benefits, et cetera. Proposes that the socialist system would slightly overtake capitalism as the mode of production would now be cooperative. Hence socialism is not an inevitability, but according to Karl Marx, it is an economic necessity. (Liberto, 2020)

The economic analysis that Karl Marx lays on capitalism it is established on the interpretation of his labor theory of value. The report includes the subject matter of extraction of the surplus value from the exploitation of labor; it is categorized under capitalism in the name of profit. The market analysis combined with history and economics form a standard prediction of an inevitable breakdown of the capitalist form of economy and must be replaced by communism. Although Marx refused to lay conjecture on the nature of socialism, he envisioned, giving the argument that it would not be a predetermined moral idea; rather, it would arise out of the historical process of need and realization. (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2017)

Realist Analysis

The realist form of analysis or evaluation is very new in the philosophical world, developed by the late twentieth century. It also follows a theory-driven form of the assessment itself by, at the same time, its explicit philosophical foundations set it apart from the other types of evaluations.

This evaluation came into its earliest stage of development in 1997 when the renowned philosophers Tilley and Pawson gave a realist evaluation approach for the first time. Since then, various interpretations keep coming up as it is new in the philosophical field of analyses. Tilley and Pawson Argument that to be healthy, the land value needed to be identified form of what works in the given circumstances instead of just thinking whatever works. So, the realist approach focuses on the fact that "What works, for whom, in what respects, to what extent, in what contexts. Further, answer to that evaluators aim to identify the mechanism of how the outcomes are called and what makes them happen? These philosophers have used the term scientific realism in this kind of evaluation, which considers that an assessment may or may not work due to the factors involved in the decision-making process in responding to intervention. The primary reasoning of the factors responding to the resources given through the response is the root causes of the outcomes. (Hewitt, Sims & Harris, 2013)

These include the term generative mechanism that refers to the essential psychological drivers of the social norms. For example, parenting skills have generated different outcomes over the years for mothers and fathers. Their behavior mechanisms are derived from the various forms that are dominant in different social livings, in addition to other devices that may be included in psychological or other areas.

One can also refer to the other circumstance that matters in this situation are the context. The context of the social structure leads to influencing the reasoning capacity of a person. At the same time, the generative mechanism works only if the circumstances are reasonable and right. Considering the same example again, the effect of differences in social beliefs in responsibilities and roles of father and mother in various societies and cultures affects how parents choose to respond to their ward. Would they decide to pick a new learning practice that would largely depend upon the numerous factors like their own beliefs, mental health, availability of resources and time, etc.? So, the primary point is that context provides various explanations to any given outcome. During the analysis, all these explanations need to be considered. (Marchal, Belle & Westhorp, 2016)

Like Marxism, the approach of realism has made its way through the political scenarios of the country. The realists claim an accurate explanation to the behavioral state which works upon a set of policies and prescribed balance of power amongst the nations. This balance is used in the improvement of the ingrained unstable components that are prevalent in international affairs. Thus, this concept of realism and neo-realism focuses on the patterns which abide by the interaction of elements in the scenario of the global political economy, which lack the centralized systems of political authority. It proposes conditions of anarchy that run on the logical aspects of international politics, which also tends to differ from necessary domestic policies as against the monarchies which have so far has been regulated under the rule of sovereign power. The realists' pessimism, in general, is essential when talked about applying radical systematic reforms to better society's betterment. Thus, realism is not entirely under one umbrella of definition anymore. It consists of a broad but traditional pool of thoughts that includes a variety of strands, including classical realism and neo-realism. (Bell. NA)

Similarities Between Marxist and Realist Analyses

It is usually claimed that Marx followed the critical realist principles way before the concept of realism even existed. When Marx's works are viewed through the essential viewpoint of authenticity, the three significant implications of similarity could be derived:

  1. The critical realism provides a systematic approach that makes the concepts of transition acquired by Marx more accessible and precise.

  2. Marx's Theory on capitalism can be a typical example of realists who prefer to do social research.

  3. The comparison of these two makes a point of how the areas of Mark's method points and critical realism can be developed. (Ehrbar, 2007)

Critical realism seems to be more of an augmentation of Marxism. Marxism is a body of thought that has most likely always sought to make its wings span into the levels of practicality, Theory, and philosophy. The concept of materialism has been undertaken as a philosophical ground, which leads to the theoretical comment of various extended roles and forms of value within the working class of society. Further, this general promulgation is used in the national and international political workings. Both Marxism and realism evaluation hold. Evaluations focus on the well-being of the working-class; if they are defeated or alive, it has a range of politics, it is followed and adopted and in the theoretical positions. At the same time, while Marxism lives in support of news social movements in the politics of a nation, realism leads to support of things like the vanguard party. (Brown, Fleetwood & Roberts, 2001)

Differences Between Marxist and Realist Analyses

Realism versus Marxism is a very heated topic among social scholars. One must understand that as discussed above, both the schools of thought are highly dependent on each other, and it does not make sense in trying to draw a clear line of difference among them. Yet, there are exact blur lines that differentiate the base of these two evaluators.

It has been viewed through the window of Marxism that a revolution is an essential factor for overcoming any class difference. Realists criticize this strong emphasis on the revolutionary struggle basing it on Russia's history, where the revolutionary struggle and the struggle to end the class difference led to another sort of oppression. Realism also does not accept the totalism of Marxian pool of thought, declining it as extremism. (Meyer)

Conclusion

In the above study, we see that both Marxism and realism have different grounds and history of development. Still, while Marxism leads to a political scenario of changing the class rules and leading to new societal movements, the realist theory simultaneously leads to political support for things like the vanguard party. So, it does not make any point in mapping differences between Marxism and political practices to that of realism and the same. The ruth of this proposition lies in the (probably uncontroversial) the fact that there are several competing Marxist theories (about various phenomena) and several Marxist political programs, all perfectly compatible with dialectical materialist philosophy.

References:

Ollman, B. (NA). What is Marxism? A Bird's-Eye View.

Retrieved from: https://www.nyu.edu/projects/ollman/docs/what_is_marxism.php [Retrieved on: 29-05-2020]

Chappelow, J. (2019). Marxism

Retrieved from: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/marxism.asp [Retrieved on: 29-05-2020]

Vidal et al., (2018). Article: Class and Class Struggle. Journal: Oxford handbook online. Published by Oxford University Press.

Liberto, D. (2020). Marxian Economics

Retrieved from: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/marxian-economics.asp [Retrieved on: 29-05-2020]

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (2017). Karl Marx.

Retrieved from: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/marx/ [Retrieved on: 29-05-2020]

Marchal, B. Belle, S. & Westhorp, G. (2016). Realist Evaluation

Retrieved from: https://www.betterevaluation.org/en/approach/realist_evaluation [Retrieved on: 29-05-2020]

Hewitt, G. Sims, S. & Harris, R. (2013). The realist approach to evaluation research: an introduction Journal: International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation. Published bu MAG Online Library

Bell, D. (NA) Realism in International Relations

Retrieved from: https://www.britannica.com/topic/realism-political-and-social-science [Retrieved on: 29-05-2020]

Ehrbar, (2007). The Relation between Marxism and Critical Realism.

Retrieved from: https://content.csbs.utah.edu/~ehrbar/valmat.pdf [Retrieved on: 29-05-2020]

Brown, A. Fleetwood, S. & Roberts, J. (2001). The marriage of critical realism and Marxism: happy, unhappy or on the rocks? Retrieved from: http://www.criticalrealism.com/archive/iacr_conference_2001/sfleetwood_mrm.pdf [Retrieved on: 29-05-2020]

Candnk, J. (2019). What is social evaluator

Retrieved from: https://www.quora.com/What-is-social-media-evaluator-and-how-does-it-work [Retrieved on: 29-05-2020]

(Meyer). Marxism versus realism

Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00220973.1937.11017234?journalCode=vtss20[Retrieved on: 29-05-2020]

Remember, at the center of any academic work, lies clarity and evidence. Should you need further assistance, do look up to our Political Science Assignment Help

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