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  • Subject Name : English Literature

1. Section for Summarising:

Ability is an important influence on educational outcomes and thus indirectly influences occupational destinations. Its effects cannot be attributed to socio-economic background or other factors such as cultural capital. Its effects on educational outcomes tend to be stronger than that for socioeconomic background. However, among students with the same ability levels, students from higher socio-economic background have superior outcomes. The overall effects of socio-economic backgrounds on educational outcomes are declining, as are the effects of ability. Answer

Marks and McMillan (2003, p. 467) indicates the skills of a student affect the outcomes of their education and thus plays a role in deciding what occupation the student will be taking on. The socio-economic background does not dictate educational outcomes for a student. However, socio-economic background plays an influencing factor on the education of those students who have similar abilities, those with the better economic background are influenced positively. The overall socio-economic factor does not influence education outcomes that strongly and its effects are declining just like the effects of abilities are.

2. Section for Paraphrasing:

The below paragraph for paraphrasing is taken from p.66 of this article: https://search-informit-com-au.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/fullText;dn=610573444393708;res=IELIND Despite the efforts of government and universities in improving Indigenous students’ situation in higher education, Indigenous participation remains low. After a short period of growth, Indigenous commencements and completions now appear to be decreasing. Recruiting more Indigenous students who have completed school and are prepared for a university is paramount to overall Indigenous success in education.

Answer 2: Pechenkina, Kowal and Paaradies (2011, p.66) state that indigenous enrollment in the educational organization has been low despite universities and government efforts to promote education for indigenous people. argues that for a brief period indigenous involvement in education and literacy increased however in the current scenario this involvement is going down. The education system will say to be successful in terms of Indigenous population when more students of indigenous origin can get into universities after completing their schooling

3. Section for Quoting:

The below paragraph for quoting is taken from p.16 of the following article: https://www-tandfonline-com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/doi/pdf/10.1080/01425690701728720?needAccess=true "Habitus is not a clean, formal, academic concept. It seems that this term, and others, was used within Bourdieu’s research group as an aide to memory, to focus attention on hidden aspects of common sense accepted as truths"

Answer: Bourdieu’s concept of habitus is very uncertain. Bourdieu characterizes habitus in three distinctive ways: firstly as ability, secondly a set of dispositions, and lastly as a framework for practice (Funnel 2008). The author provides "Habitus isn't a clean, formal, scholarly concept. It appears that this term, and others, was utilized inside Bourdieu’s investigate bunch as an helper to memory, to center consideration on covered up angles of common sense acknowledged as truths." (Funnel 2008). Bourdieu claims to have borrowed the concept of habitus from phenomenologist like Hussler; however, the way they conceive such a concept is quite different.

4. Section for Paraphrasing:

The below paragraph for paraphrasing is taken from p.i of the following article: https://journals-sagepub-com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1529- 1006.2007.00031.x

The subject of this monograph—sex differences in science and mathematics—is controversial. Although a topic of discussion for years, this issue was brought to public attention again in 2005 by the much-quoted comments of Lawrence Summers, then president of Harvard University, suggesting that at least part of the reason for the dearth of women at the top in math and science professions is a lack of intrinsic aptitude. Any claim that genetic differences between the sexes are somewhat responsible for the underperformance of women in some valued eld is going to provoke debate, and this was no exception. Both academic and public debate ensued. Answer 4: Sex differences in science and mathematics is a controversial theme which has been the centre of discussions for many years. Harvard university president Lawrence Summer resurfaced the term to the public again in 2005 (Barnett 2007, p.i). He commented that the reason why women do not occupy good positions in the math and science professions is that they do not possess an aptitude for these disciplines. When genetic deference among the sexes is brought out to be the reason why women do not perform well in science and math would elicit controversy and debates. Similarly, sex differences in science and mathematics provoke academic and public debates. 5.Referencing: Barnett, S.M 2007, 'Complex Questions Rarely Have Simple Answers', Sage Journals, vol.8, no.1,p. i, https://journals-sagepub-com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1529-1006.2007.00031.x

Funnell, R 2008, 'Tracing variations within ‘rural habitus’: an explanation of why young men stay or leave isolated rural towns in southwest Queensland', British Journal of Sociology of Education, vol.29, no.1,p.16, https://journals-sagepub-com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1529-1006.2007.00031.x Marks, G. N.,& McMillan, J 2003, 'Declining inequality? The changing impact of socio‐economic background and ability on education in Australia', The British Journal of Sociology, Vol.54, no.4, p.467, https://onlinelibrary-wiley-com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2003.00453.x Pechenkina, E., Kowal, E., & Paradies, Y 2011, 'Indigenous Australian students' participation rates in higher education: Exploring the role of universities', Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, vol.40, p.66, https://search-informit-com-au.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/fullText;dn=610573444393708;res=IELIND

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