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Feasibility of Producing a High-Yield Laminated Structural Product

Elements Experiencing Structural Actions

Compression –

  1. The compressive stresses are experienced along with columns 310 x UC 96.8 which is comprised of structural steel member and specification accordingly.
  2. Brick blade walls experience compressive stress. The brick members are good towards compression and weak in taking up tensile loads.
  3. The reinforced slab provided near basement and basement RC slabs experiences compression and 600 X 400 steel-reinforced concrete columns

Shear -

  1. The shear is experienced on Beam B1 460 UB 82.1
  2. Spread footing
  3. Aluminium cladding system

Tension –

  1. Tensile stresses are induced in bottom of B7 460 UB 82.1
  2. Steel balustrades provided for ramp
  3. Light weight concrete block wall which experience tensile stresses

Transferring Load from Beam to Car Park System

While considering the transfer of loads the tensile stresses are induced in the bottom of transfer beams 460 UB 82.1 and these are transferred to the basement slabs and from there to the supporting foundations. The behaviour of the loading system is such that the loads from walls, beams, and slabs are together transferred to the supporting columns. From columns, the loads are transferred to foundations. While considering the steel beams, the compressive stress is developed in the top portion. In the support portion tensile stress is induced at top of the beam and compressive stress is induced at bottom of the beam. While considering the end support it’s the same action and transfer mechanism of the loads. In the middle portion of the beam tensile stress is developed in the bottom of the beam and compressive stress is developed in the top portion of the beam.

Maximum Allowable Deflection

The maximum allowable deflection for the beam can be calculated as L(Span) of the beam divided by 60. Here the span of beam B1 from the plan is 15475. So the maximum deflection limit for span 15475 is 42.986 as per AS 1170.

Installation of Transfer Beam Assembly

There are many different aspects to be considered for studying the purpose and applicability of the load transfer of the structural members. this includes the consideration of concentrated loads on supporting elements. The eccentricities of connection and supporting members. Also the ability to reinforce the structural members with proper tying actions. The steel beams may be connected with the columns to existing pads or strips. Grouted thread bolts and rods are required to transfer the loads from beams and columns to the foundation and the foundation could be constructed with reinforced concrete and bolt holes from baseplates shall be larger compared to the normally required plate washers. Additional 50 mm holes may be provided for large base plates. The horizontal adjustments may be done in orthogonal direction for oversized holes and vertical adjustments between steel shims base plate and concrete foundation may be ensured. The compression transfer is done through the beneath grout to the base plate and shear is transferred with the help of threaded rods by friction with the base plate and grout in the foundation. The steel connection plate shall be bolted towards the side of the member with expanding anchors and the steel beam located along the seating bracket shall be bolted down to the connection cleat to transfer the axial load from the beam and the connection plate shall be bent from the plate separately welded into the rolled section to reduce the fabrication charges.

Checks that Are Required to Ensure Beam Assemblies Are Adequate to Take up The Loads of The Structure

The ability to accommodate the connections of building elements with movement and tolerance checks. The local capacity of structural members is required to design the building connection assembly and the connection assembly shall be locked as they could transfer the loads parallel in direction or sliding of members are to be cross-checked. The dimensional variations and its effect on end bearing steel sections with the alignment of proper bolts and sockets may be considered to ensure that the load transfer is satisfactory under all situations within an extreme limit of tolerance and proper assembly is achieved. A design checklist may be prepared which includes the specification of site operation regarding details of concrete, steel holes, and channel properties with the specification of connection bracket and positioning of beams and support bolts. The normal skill level may be checked and proper handling of materials and safety parameters shall be ensured.

References of Technical Development Progress

AS/NZS 1170.0:2002 (i'ncorporating Amendment Nos 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) ,Australian/New Zealand Standard™ Structura.l design actions ,Part 0: General principles, Standards Australia.

Schaffer, E. L., R. W. Jokerst, R. C. Moody,C. C. Peters, J. L. Tschernitz, and J. J. Zahn.2017. Press-Lam: Progress in technicaldevelopment of laminated veneer structural products. Volume 1(12),pp.1-5.

Schaffer, E. L., J. L. Tschernitz, C. C. Peters,R. C. Moody, R. W. Jokerst, and J. J. Zahn (2016).

 Feasibility of producing a high-yieldLaminated structural product: Generalsummary. USDA For. Serv. Res. ,Volume 16,pp.10-15

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