Blood pressure is the evaluation of the force or the pressure that is used by the heart in order to pump blood across the body. When the heart beats, its role is to pump the blood round the body in order to fulfill the requirement of energy and oxygen that the body needs. When the blood moves, it shoves against the walls of the blood vessels and the potency of this pushing is termed as blood pressure. However, there are certain factors that impact the blood pressure reading and they are stress, anxiety, a full bladder, eating, fasting, exercise, alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, cold temperature, and so on (Singh, Shankar & Singh, 2017).
Blood pressure is actually the resultant force of two forces, one is the systolic pressure and the other is the diastolic pressure. The systolic pressure is exerted as the blood gets pumped out from the heart to the arteries of the circulatory system while the diastolic pressure occurs when the heart rests in between the heart beats. The factors that affects the reading of the blood pressure include stress and anxiety as stress and anxiety spike in the cortisol levels and results in the heart rate to increase that could potentially alter the blood pressure reading, a full bladder adds can raise the reading by 10-15 points, while consumption of alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, even meals can potentially alter the blood pressure (Menanga et al., 2016).
Atherosclerosis is a disorder that occurs when the arteries gets narrower, this is caused by the upsurge of plaque. It is the buildup of cholesterol, fats, and other substances in and on the walls of artery which is known as plaque. This is potential in restricting the flow of blood. When the blood flow gets restricted it may result in the bursting of plaque and triggers a blood clot. Although, atherosclerosis has been considered as a heart problem, it can have an impact on arteries anywhere in the body (Libby, Bornfeldt & Tall, 2016).
When the fatty acid deposits or plaque choke the arteries, the condition is termed as atherosclerosis. As the plaque upsurges, the wall of the blood vessel thickens. This tends to narrows the channel within the artery and reduces the blood flow and decreases the amount of oxygen along with other nutrients to reach out the body. When the heart beats, it thrusts the blood flow through the arteries in the entire body. On account of this the high blood pressures means that the arteries throughout the body swells and stretches even more than they would actually do in general. This stretching up of the arteries leads to injure the endothelium, and in this way the delicate lining of the arteries get stiffer over time and leads to atherosclerosis. Higher the stiffness of the arteries increases the pulse pressure (Libby, Bornfeldt & Tall, 2016).
The concept map is given below to show how atherosclerosis would alter systemic blood pressure.
Libby, P., Bornfeldt, K. E., & Tall, A. R. (2016). Atherosclerosis: Successes, surprises, and future challenges. Circulation Research, 118(4), 531-534. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.308334
Menanga, A., Edie, S., Nkoke, C., Boombhi, J., Musa, A. J., Mfeukeu, L. K., & Kingue, S. (2016). Factors associated with blood pressure control amongst adults with hypertension in Yaounde, Cameroon: A cross-sectional study. Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy, 6(5), 439–445. https://doi.org/10.21037/cdt.2016.04.03
Singh, S., Shankar, R., & Singh, G. P. (2017). Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension: A cross-sectional study in Urban Varanasi. International Journal of Hypertension, 2017, 5491838. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5491838
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