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Environmental and Cultural Tourism

Executive Summary of Environmental and Cultural Tourism

The report addressed the Natural attractions of Nullarbor National Park and examined the management plan and analysis of stakeholder management for sustainable development of the Nullarbor National Park. The park located in Southern Australia provides a scenic view of the landscape with caves and camping as tourism experience for travelers. The report highlighted the management plan developed by the government for natural conversion and the impact of the loss of biodiversity on the Nullarbor National Park.

Table of Contents

Introduction.

Natural Asset overview..

Identification of tourist mode of interaction.

Sustainable development for the National Park.

Stakeholder role in Sustainable development

Impact of loss of biodiversity.

Conclusion.

Reference.

Introduction to Environmental and Cultural Tourism

Australia is rich in its wildlife and natural heritage with trail weaving and recreational experience for the visitors. The park offers diverse flora and fauna with many species of birds. This report provides an overview of Nullarbor Park and its contemporary challenges and key attractions.

Natural Asset Overview

Nullarbor National Park is the world's largest semi-arid karst landscape and Regional Reserve (National Park and Wildlife Service, 2020). The park provides a sense of beauty. Nullarbor Park is a protected area located in the state of South Australia. Its area expands to 323 square kilometers by the proclamation of the Nullarbor Protection Area (South Australia, 2020). The region has very sparse vegetation. The area in the park has an extensive network of caves and underground cravens. The carven has cultural features associated with it such as painting. The area offers a scenic view of the ocean and Australia Marina bay Park.

Identification of Tourist Mode of Interaction

Iso-Ahola's theory asserts personal escape motivates recreation and tourism (Snepenger, 2006).

  • Environment as a setting of action- the recreation option at the Nullarbor National Park. The location provides limited recreational experience with a large landscape and emerging view central to attracting tourists.
    1. Tourist products - The Park offers different activities such as camping, walking, and scenic drives. The turquoise water and Great Australian bite are the ground for the southern whale. The pursuit of relaxation through recreation activity near the caves and whale watching are passive pursuits as a mode of interaction in the National Park. The key tourist attractions are whale watching, bushwalking, and camping. The camping activity is limited and available on booking as the setting of action with protected are the cave experience is limited for tourist pursuits on the National park visit. The whales with cave tend to stay in all seasons near the site for the cliff camping edge of the cliff area (South Australia, 2020).
    2. Behavioral attitude-The behavioral attitude with experience for bushwalking and disinterest in the environment only towards recreational experience.
  • Environment as an emotional territory-The sense of strong emotion on the natural environment will invoke personal development through aboriginal cultural heritage awareness. The perceived damage as local tourists is invoked wit damage to self. Tourist show respect with access and protocol of the Aboriginal culture with cave and wilderness
    1. Attraction and service-The cliff end near the landscape act as the southern boundary of the park where the Nullarbor meets the South Ocean that creates a distinctive image and is one of the highlights of the park. The cliff stretch nearly 200 kilometer has a coastline area with spectacular display (Australia, 2020). The southern hairy Wombats are the largest population and are part of the area.
    2. Tourist behavior and attitude-The National park display a sense of well-being at the beauty of the place. The tourist will contemplate the magnificent view with a walk near the cliff.
  • Environment as a social system- The environment of Park provides a place for interaction with family and friends.
  • Attraction and service- The bushwalking and flat landscape with cliff stretch provide family bonding and interaction time on the camping facility provided on the Nullarbor National Park.
  • Tourist behavior and attitude- The environmental setting is placed later than the social setting and the only visitation is prime.
  • Environment as self-Seeking and escaping are prime motives and the location experience serenity the aesthetic and cultural diversity through caves display as merging with nature. The iconic tourism destination provides a natural visitor experience of the Nullarbor Plain area.
    1. Attraction and services- The volunteering experience as friends of Park are displayed for the bushwalker group. The camp activity as stay in park experience offers landscape and trails.
    2. Tourist behavior and attitude-The environment attitude displays strong attachment in such mode of interaction with biodiversity conversion and socially aware of the actions in Nullarbor Park with its wilderness zone classification to conserve caves and aboriginal culture. The stay option creates a strong attachment to the landscape.

Sustainable Development for the National Park

Management of cave and karst in the Nullarbor Park is done by Karst Management association and Ministry of Environment and Water. Special management zone is classified for conserving and protection of natural and cultural features of the park and its aesthetic value. The Nullarbor Wilderness Protection was put forth in the year 2013 and is the largest wilderness protected area (Government of South Australia, 2019). It promotes the natural area and kart caves. The Nullarbor Regional Reserve facilitate the conservation of reserves and enable sustainable use of energy resources. The management plan ensures that allied activities such as hunting, collection of bush tucker, and coastal food are conducted sustainably. The Nullarbor Park is introduced as a regional reserve to enable multiple uses of land including activity, exploration. The management plan objectives are encouraging sustainable tourism enterprises and developing for better visitor experience (National Park and wildlife, 2016). Nature-based tourism plan through Nature-based Tourism Co-investment Fund for park management in Southern Australia to develop sustainable experiences.

Zoning- The classification as wilderness with primary areas resource protection with limited facilities embarked on Nullarbor Wilderness Park. This has increased the awareness of the tourist towards the area. The Nullarbor Wilderness Protection Area was declared in 2013 as the largest wilderness protection area in South Australia (Australia, 2020). The protection of natural area as it is significant due to endism among cave fauna. Placing wilderness in a protected area system reinforces the principle of wilderness and the need for intact areas as exercising of saving area and active management of wilderness value.

Environmental code of conduct- The conduct is determined for sensitivity to culture and heritage to the Aboriginal history of the National Park. The park is co-managed by the advisory committee and National Park Staff. The cultural protocol has restricted access for Traditional owners (Australia, 2020).

Stakeholder Role in Sustainable Development

The collaboration involves the relationship between government, visitor, and local community for capital, knowledge, and expertise. The central government maintains the protection and development of the park. South Australia's park is protected with National Park and Wildlife Act and park management plan to maintain sustainable development and recommendation on improving the visitor experience. The major objectives of the government are in direction of conservation, accessibility, and community service, and responsible management. There are has visits of around 50000 people with visits to Bunda cliff lookout and Mirning country (National Park and wildlife service, 2020).

Impact of Loss of Biodiversity

The impact of the loss of biodiversity will be severe in Australia and Nullarbor Park. The land clearing, warming ocean impact on the climate resulting in extreme heat pattern that creates a longer fire season (Ching, 2019). The rising seas level and temperature change globally impact the extreme weather and create a displacement of travel plans (Hall, 2010). Natural wilderness is an attraction with viewable activities listed will be restricted with loss of biodiversity. The impact of marine and water-level declines the whale experience one of the major attractions of the Nullarbor National Park. The National Park will be impacted by the rising temperature and attraction on whale watching and camping activities. The climate change s resulted in the marine heatwave that has a devastating impact on ocean species and results in the loss of marine species. The bush fire had negatively impacted the tourism in Southern Australia and threat to National Park.

Recommendation of Sustainable Development of National Park

  • Sustainable development of parks can be addressed through increasing competencies of the administrative board and knowledge of individual responsibility (Mitchell, 2013). The involvement of local communities in conservation, spatial development plan, and project development strategies
  • Recognizing wilderness of the area in exploration and mining tenements to promote landscape-scale conservation.

Conclusion on Environmental and Cultural Tourism

Nullarbor National Park with its vast landscape and aboriginal culture history is an attractive tourism visit. The development of the park is managed by the South Australia National Park Service. The management plan is developed for restriction on activities to protect wildlife reserve and marine animals. The frequent climate change and loss of biodiversity have an impact on the warmer weather and life and composition decline in the park area.

References for Environmental and Cultural Tourism

Australia. (2020). Crossing the Nullarbor. Retrieved from https://www.australia.com/en-in/trips-and-itineraries/perth-and-surrounds/crossing-the-nullarbor.html

Ching, S., Zyngier, S., Nayeem, T., (2019). Ecotourism and environmental sustainability knowledge: An open knowledge sharing approach among stakeholders. 62-82. https://doi.org/10.1017/aee.2018.45

Government of South Australia. (2019). New Management Plan for Nullarbor Park. Retrieved from https://www.environment.sa.gov.au/news-hub/news/articles/2019/08/nullarbor-parks-management-plan

Hall, M, (2010). Tourism and biodiversity: more significant than climate change?. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 4(1), 253-266. https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873X.2010.517843

Mitchell, R., Wooliscraft, B, & Higham, J. (2013). Applying sustainability in national park management: balancing public and private interests using a sustainable market orientation mode. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(5), 695-715.

National Park and wildlife service. (2020). Nullarbor Park. Retrieved from https://www.parks.sa.gov.au/find-a-park/Browse_by_region/Eyre_Peninsula/nullarbor-national-park#see-and-do

Snepenger, D., King, J., Marshall, E., & Uysal, M. (2006). Modeling Iso-Ahola’s Motivation Theory in the Tourism Context. Journal of Travel Research, 45(2), 140–149. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287506291592

South Australia. (2020). Nullarbor Park. Retrieved from https://southaustralia.com/products/eyre-peninsula/attraction/nullarbor-national-park

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