Bali has been proved to be one of the most conventional tourism hotspot in recent time. However, increase in tourism to Bali require immediate attention and strategy making. This can address the issues faced by the economy, society and environment of Bali. Proper strategy making can also address the needs of the stakeholders in the tourism development business. Strategies such as proper interaction between the stakeholders in addition to approval of the indigenous groups to the tourism projects can improve healthy tourism in Bali. This assignment strives to highlight the economic, social and environmental concerns associated with increased tourism in Bali. Moreover, it also highlights the ways in which increased tourism to Bali can be tackled for achieving a sustainable outcome. The assignment firstly identify the economic, social and environmental issues and then identifies the important stakeholders of Bali tourism. It then discuss the role of each stakeholders in addressing the identified issue while ensuring sustainable tourism followed by the responses that are required for ensuring the sustainable tourism.
According to Lampert (2019), increased tourism is said to have positive impact on the economic growth of an economy. Bali is considered as a natural beauty which has attracted a number of tourists from worldwide. This has made a Bali as a tourism hotspot and thus this has increased the spread of tourism in Bali. According to statistics 6.1 million tourists were reported to visit Bali in the year 2018 (Pharino, Pearce & Pryce, 2018). This recorded an annual growth of 11.3% as only 2.1 million visitors visited Bali in the year 2008 (Pharino, Pearce & Pryce, 2018). Bali is considered as a jewel in the crown of Indonesia’s tourism industry. Although this have a number of pros in improving Bali’s economy but it have some disadvantages to other important business sector of the country. According to Benge and Neef (2018), aggressive market campaigns by the government which are focused on the island’s range of attractions are important part of the Bali’s tourism.
However, it impose a significant negative impact over the environment of the place. It has been stated that increased tourism in a country demands increased utilization of the resources. Excess of people coming every year from different countries demand excess of fuel, food, space and other such resources (Benge & Neef, 2018). This not only bring up the sustainability issue but also increase environmental pollution. Over exploitation of the ocean results in water pollution which impose a negative impact on the marine life of Bali (Benge & Neef, 2018). Degraded fisheries and polluted water can impose a significant environmental crisis hence important consideration should be given to the environmental crisis faced by Bali.
Bali is highly impacted by the social, cultural and economic exploitation of the resources. According to Fyall et al., (2019), it is important for a place to maintain its cultural integrity in the care of modernization. Increased capacity utilization is having negative impact on the environmental quality which is leading to high social, economic and environmental costs for the Bali community. It is important for the government to deal with this issue in order to ensure continuous attraction of Bali for the tourists and sustaining tourism development. According to Fyall et al., (2019), increase in the footfall of the foreigners in Bali can degrade the local culture of the communities. It is important to consider the importance of Indigenous people in the social and cultural sustainability of the country. Inability of the traditional communities to adapt to the changes can reduce their value. However, adapting to the cultural and social changes can lead to social degradation of the cultural values of the groups. Most of the employed human capital in Bali is willing to work in the tourism field which is reducing the labour supply in the other industries (Brata & Pemayun, 2018). This have both economic and social impact over the nation as it reduce the profitability from other industries and increase greater social gap in the field of agriculture, fisheries, technology and textiles.
Increase in the tourism has led to loss of land by the local residents. Majority of this land is used for spa centres, development of hotels and golf courses. Moreover, cutting of trees, agricultural farms and forests for building hotels, motels and spas can impose negative impact over the economy that comes from forests, fisheries and agriculture (Brata & Pemayun, 2018). It has been stated that increase in tourism brings up a number of disease outbreaks in the country (Hidayati & Faiz, 2020). International spread of a disease is most prevalent in countries that are hotspot of tourism. For e.g. the recent Corona virus epidemic in the world has been most prominently spread in the countries that favour tourism. The market of Indonesia has experienced maximum visitors from china. A report have published that an annual growth of 26.6% have seen in Chinese visitors in Indonesia. The statistics of Chinese visitors have increased from 129,000 visitors in 2008 to 1.4 million visitors in 2018 (Hidayati & Faiz, 2020). Since, the Corona virus has originated from China so Bali is most expected to have a negative impact over its economy in coming years. Disease outbreaks can lead to increased healthcare burden and loss of human resources which ultimately lead to reduced economic sustainability of a country.
Important stakeholders of Bali’s tourism are the hotel investors, policymakers, planners, managers, marketers and developers (Momeni et al., 2018). Members of the Indigenous communities are also given an important role in the stakeholders group because they justify ethical functioning of the tourism industry. Hotel investors, developers, managers and policymakers are important part of the tourism industry because they keep a forecast to the inbound international arrivals of the tourists (Momeni et al., 2018). The stakeholders have an important role in developing strategies that can boost up the tourism industry in addition to the strategies that can reduce the harmful impact to the industry. The stakeholders keep a check on both the inbound domestic and international arrivals. An analysis to the average duration of these people in the star-rated hotels can indicate the reliability of the tourism industry. Moreover, involvement of these stakeholders in the policy making can help the government impart greater environmental and social sustainability (Chin et al., 2017). Indigenous people or culture specialists must be involved in the group of stakeholders in order to maintain the cultural integrity of Bali.
Clear and considerable strategies are required to focus not only on the economic aspects of the Bali’s tourism but also on the environmental and social effects of the increasing tourism in the country (Chin et al., 2017). The strategies must be focused on well planned and effective tourism based advices from the important stakeholders of the industry. Advices in context to sustainable future planning and proper investment based decisions can definitely help the stakeholders to address the economic, environmental and social issues of increased tourism in Bali. An involvement of the important stakeholders of Bali’s tourism such as the hotel investors, policymakers, planners, managers, marketers and developers can indicate greater success in addressing the needs of the country (Pizzitutti et al., 2017).
People of Bali are expected to lose their cultural integrity due to modernization so a cultural promotion team must be integrated as important stakeholder. Culture promotion in addition to tourism can help people know about the culture of Bali’s indigenous groups and hence it can resolve the issue of decreased cultural sustainability (Carlisle, Johansen, & Kunc, 2016). Policy makers inclined toward sustainable use of the environmental resources and land can resolve the issue of over exploitation and hence it can help the people of Bali to maintain their environmental stability and sustainability. It has been seen that campaigns promoting the beautiful sea in Bali have increased water pollution so awareness strategies that are inclined toward clean water must be promoted and followed (Carlisle, Johansen, & Kunc, 2016). Over exploitation of the land for hotel construction should not be performed at the cost of loss of loss of agricultural farms, tress and forests. Policies that favor tree plantation and inclusion of environment specialist in this aspect must be followed.
It is important for the tourism industry in Bali to understand the importance of sustainable tourism (Budhiasa & Riana, 2020). Increased campaigns, growth in spas, hotels, and golf courses can enhance the tourism industry in present times but it can significantly impact the industry in future. According to Budhiasa and Riana (2020), sustainability refer to the development in which future availability of resources are taken care of. Bali is an important and growing tourism sector for Indonesia but the question arise is tourism sustainable in Bali? Continuous efforts with increased environment specific, culture specific, health specific, and economy specific interventions can help Bali to achieve its sustainable outcomes. Identification of ways that does not compromise with the society and quality of the environment can help the tourism industry in Indonesia to maintain sustainable tourism in Bali. Integrating culture in tourism and advertising the uniqueness of the culture can give world-wide recognition to the culture of Bali and hence it can promote greater sustainability to the cultural aspects of the people belonging from Bali (Carlisle, Johansen, & Kunc, 2016). Active participation by the policy makers with proper involvement of the environment specialist can result in sustainable growth and development of the tourism business.
In conclusion, Bali is an important and much accessed tourism hotspot worldwide. People from different countries visit Bali annually and often and this has increased tourism as an interesting business in Bali. People are more inclined toward the tourism business then which have bought up some social, cultural, environmental and economic issues. Increasing tourism have resulted in overexploitation of the resources which have imposed environmental concern to the nation. Moreover, increased risk of disease outbreak in addition to single sided economy growth by tourism have resulted in negative impact on the economy. Involvement of stakeholders such as the managers, policy makers, government specialists, environment specialists and indigenous representatives can direct the Bali’s tourism in Sustainable direction. Positive culture and environment specific campaigns can result in positive tourism and future opportunities for tourism in Bali.
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