The tourism industry is considered as one of the fast growing industries in the world. It has experiencing continuously expansion and diversification. It is a major category of international trade in services. Tourism is a considered very important element for the economic development of the country (Fang, Ye amp Law, 2016).In many of the developing countries, tourism ranks as the first exporter. The advanced economies of the three nations which include America, Asia and Europe have been the worlds major source markets for international tourism. Among these regions, Europe makes almost half of the worlds international arrivals and it majorly contributes to outbound tourism. International tourism represents 7 per cent of the worlds exports in goods and services as well as this sector have grown faster than the world trade over the last years. Moreover, in the year 2015 international tourism has generated almost huge exports by international passenger transport services (UNWTO Tourism Highlights n.d.). Inbound tourism is considered an important source of making foreign currency and it also contributes to the economic development of the country. Furthermore, Tourism is becoming increasingly the significant element of export diversification for both emerging as well advanced countries of the world. In the year 2015, the tourism flows were affected due to three major sectors included exchange rate variations, the weakening in the price of oil and other commodities, and increased global concern about safety and security. In the year 2014, Asia/ Pacific were the worlds largest air travel market. The second and third largest market was Europe and North America. Over half of the worlds tourists usually, prefer to travel by air. More than 90 per cent of the cross border business which is B2C was carried by air transport. As the worldwide export category, the tourism industry is ranked in the third position after fuels and chemicals but it is ahead of food and automated products. North America, which accounts for the total of two-thirds of the Americas, has also achieved the growth in the international arrivals. Mexico and Canada have also relished the major growth driven by US demand. Moreover, growth in the United States was modest due to the stronger dollar, ultimately resulting in making the destination more expensive. The European Unions internal borders have been opened up both physically and symbolically. Moreover, the cross borders regions have become the places for interactions and communications. The regionalization process has become a challenging job for tourism development especially in the area of northern peripheries of Europe, which consist of many national boundaries. International tourist arrival in Europe has been increased by 5 per cent in the year 2015 (UNTWO, 2016). Travel demand has increased almost from the European markets, both the inside as well as outside the region, fuelling inbound growth across Europe. Europe is a well-established market for cultural tourism as well. The holidaymakers of Europe are more interested in discovering new destinations. In Western Europe, growth was led by the top destinations Belgium and France due to the fact that it has recovered from the security incidents in the previous years. The European outbound markets have increased substantially, despite its geopolitical instability worldwide. Moreover, the Europeans travellers choose the safe destinations which create opportunities for the unaffected destinations. Due to the decrease in the value of the euro currency, intraregional tourism was increased. The largest destination of Europe includes the United Kingdom has noted a 6 per cent increase in the arrivals irrespective of stronger pound, making the UK more lavish. All the destinations in Northern Europe have gained major growth despite the terror attack in London and Manchester. The depreciation of the UK pound has resulted in making the destination more affordable for tourists. International arrivals in southern and Mediterranean Europe has also achieved major growth along with Spain, the subregions top destination has also achieved major growth due to an increase in the international arrivals. The fourth largest source market United Nation has also achieved the growth in outbound demand in Europe which is supported by the strong British pound in relation to euro. Due to changes in the exchange rates and heightenedcurrency volatility, these two factors majorly influence the profitability and growth of the industries. Exchange rate volatility not only affects the large corporations but it also affects the small and medium-sized enterprise as well. The tourism demand can be influenced by economic crises, natural disasters, terrorism, crime, political instability and so on. An unfortunate trend in the travel industry is due to the effect of geopolitically stability.
Fang, B., Ye, Q., amp Law, R. (2016). Effect of sharing economy on tourism industry employment.Annals of Tourism Research,57(3), 264-267.
UNWTO Tourism Highlights (n.d.) exports from international tourism
Retrieved from http//www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284418145
The European Union plays a very significant and influencing role in the collection and sharing of the PRN data by the airlines to the government agencies. Presently, EU airlines may share the PRN with the three states with Australia, Canada, and the United States. This is due to the fact of individually negotiated bilateral PRN agreement between the EU and each of these nations. These agreements identify the specific rules and conditions that must be respected to safeguard any PRN data provided to the customer services of the government of three nations. The process of negotiating with each of the government was time-consuming. Moreover, it also detracts from any effort to promote continuity by standardisation PRN data requirements. So, the purpose of the ICAO guideline on PRN is to establish inform measures for PRN data transfer. API data is the biographic data which corresponds to the data contained in the machine-readable zone on a travellers passport. Airlines and other carriers are responsible for ensuring that travellers passport and other documentation are correct before the carriage is undertaken. The accuracy of API and PNR is very important, inaccurate data can seriously impede border control authorities. According, for those countries that require API, the provision of inaccurate or incomplete data could result in the assessment of fine or penalty against the airline or carrier for providing such data. The government of the countries try to protect their borders and citizens from criminals, terrorists and trans-national crime through the use of PNR. ICAO explains the identification of potentially high-risk passengers through PNR data analysis which provides sates and aircraft operator with the capacity to improve aviation security, enhance national and border security, prevent terrorist acts and related crimes, improve border control processing at the airports and facilitate and safeguard legitimate passenger traffic. Despite using the PRN data to access the passenger risk, the air carrier has voiced concerns over the growing demands made by the governments on the airlines to provide the PRN data. These are concerned because the cost which is associated with developing the system, as well as infrastructure, is necessary to comply with the rising demands for PRN (Han, McGauran amp Nelen 2017). Moreover, there are chances of transfer of personal data to the third parties. The three organisations and their guidelines represent specific clients and interest and have specific goals concerning passenger information programs. The World Customs Organisations (WCS) has its goals and the implication of the customs formalities as well the promotion of efficient means of the customs controls so as for minimising the global security risks. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) represents airline carrying approximately 83 per cent of the passengers across the world. It is focussed on limiting the control process applied in the respect of the passengers as they pass by the customs, immigration and other border control agencies (Tollefsen et al., 2014). The International Civil Aviation Organisation is an intergovernmental agency of the United Nations. It felicitates the border clearance formalities and adoption of internationally standard customs and immigration procedures so as to enhance and improve the global civil aviation security. These guidelines divide the data into two parts- passenger related data and flight related data. With the access of PNR, customs or the government agencies establishes a direct link to the airlines CRS and extract the passenger records. Many countries charge penalties against their carriers for providing inaccurate information. In Canada, failure by the air carrier in providing inaccurate information of the passengers is subjected to pay penalty in the amount of 3000 per flight, despite the number of travellers with the inaccurate API. The United States charge more than 75000 per flight. On the other hand, Australia provides fines of 1700 per passenger who is not reported via the countrys (APP) i.e. Advance Passenger Processing Program. The Australian APP is applicable for both airlines as well as cruise ship operators. The Australian APP provides no limits despite the number of crew or passengers. Issues of privacy, freedom and personal rights have become very complex. This is due to the fact that border security concerns continued to escalate to unprecedented levels. Canada is not one of the countries who is facing privacy issues but Australia and the United States are also facing privacy issues. Moreover, WCO/IATA/ICAO is an umbrella document which describes the systems and sources for providing the passenger related information (Wilson, 2016). On the other hand, this data is considered very important by the border control agencies for conducting a preflight risk analysis. There are many challenges which are encountered by the border control agencies due to foreign legislation.
Wilson, K. (2016). Gone With the Wind The Inherent Conflict between API/PNR and Privacy Rights in an Increasingly Security-Conscious World.Air and Space Law,41(3), 229-264.
Han, C. R., McGauran, R., amp Nelen, H. (2017). API and PNR data in use for border control authorities.Security Journal,30(4), 1045-1063.
Tollefsen, K. E., Scholz, S., Cronin, M. T., Edwards, S. W., de Knecht, J., Crofton, K., ... amp Patlewicz, G. (2014). Applying adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) to support integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATA).Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology,70(3), 629-640.
The Federal Court of Appeal judges the validity of certain decisions made by the Federal Court, or the Tax Court of Canada. The Federal Court of Appeal rejected the tribunals reasoning and it has also focused on racial profiling. The customs officer has made his decisions on the basis of Ms. Tams interview and his own experience. The court has considered that that racial profiling is not necessary. Ms. Tam was unfairly targeted because the customs officer has a belief that Chinese people smuggle more food into the country. The Federal court focuses on hearing a variety of applications which can have an impact on the country (Flaherty, 2014). The human rights of the country protect the citizens and residents of the country from discrimination in major areas which includes employment, accommodation and services provided to the public. Any individual who is found to be a victim of discrimination can file a complaint with relevant human rights. In the case of Ms. Tam the court has considered all the rights and on the basis of human rights, it has given the positive response Ms. Tam. The supreme court of Canada is the final court of appeal and the countrys nine judges represents the four main areas of the country. There are many people with different belief and religions are living in the country. The country has developed the feeling of security and safety to the all the other nations of the country and it has promoted its positive image in the minds of the customers who want to travel in the destinations of Canada. The travel and tourism industry of Canada is one of the dominant industries in Canada. The travel and tourism sectors provide the economic growth and development of the country. Many tourists consider the safety and security factors before travelling to other countries. Many of the travellers face language and cultural barriers. In the case of Ms. Tam also, she has also faced language issues. The human rights of Canada also consider freedom, to choose any religion (Blackstock, 2011). Canadian courts have also adopted many new principles from foreign countries. The laws and rights of the country include fundamental rights, democratic rights, mobility rights, legal rights, equality rights, language rights, minority language education rights and other rights. Canadian society has always championed itself in adopting new and open to foreign ideas. In the globalized world, where local law often comes in contact with international law and foreign law, courts have two options in this case. The first option is to only concentrate on the nation and the second option is to accept the transfer of legal ideas and opportunities. The country also contributes to the overall development of the country in the field of the travel and tourism industry. Therefore, the country has built a positive image in the minds of people of the other nations. But the country is still facing discrimination issues. The Discrimination factors includes many elements such as sex, race, color, language, religion, political or another opinion, national or social origin, association with a national minority, property, birth or another status. Thus, discrimination takes place when an individual is treated less favorably than others. If the incident of Ms. Tam happened in Australia than also the court of the country may have given justice to Ms. Tam. Many of the travellers from different countries face cultural as well as language barriers. The government of the country is still working on removing the discrimination issues. As the tourism industry of Australia has achieved major growth and profits. So, the country should look at these factors. Moreover, the country considers from which country the good originates for international trade. Furthermore, Australian Customs and Border Protection Services carefully controls what people travelling to Australia bring into the country include plant material, animal products, live animals and certain foods from overseas. If the person is found to carry prohibited goods that are not declared by the authorities then the person can face penalties. Before arriving into the country, the passenger is asked to fill the document which is incoming passenger card and it is a legally binding document. The person is not penalized if he/she declares all goods even if some of them are prohibited. So, in the case of Ms. Tam, she has not faced this problem if she has already informed about the goods.
Flaherty, D. H. (2014).Protecting privacy in surveillance societies The federal republic of Germany, Sweden, France, Canada, and the United States. UNC Press Books.
Blackstock, C. (2011). The Canadian Human Rights Tribunal on First Nations child welfare Why if Canada wins, equality and justice lose.Children and Youth Services Review,33(1), 187-194.
Observation is one of the most important tools which is used by the customs officers of the country. In addition to just watching, observation includes actively assessing and evaluating. Moreover, observation during the process of communication is equally important. Along with verbal communication, non-verbal communication is equally important for the customs officers. The officers can observe the behaviour of the passengers through (CCTV) systems as well. In the modern passenger terminals, CCTV cameras are placed in the arrival gates, baggage collection as well as examination areas. Moreover, they are also placed outside of the terminal where the actions or behaviour of the passengers can be observed. This helps the officers to record and observe the actions or behaviour of the passengers who act in a suspicious manner. Many customs administrations included USCBP, ACBPS and CBSA use rover teams which are mainly trained to target the suspects or other passengers and these passengers can be targeted through API/PNR research. Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) which are the trained officers and they may intercept a suspect in the baggage collection area, can request travel documents and can ask relevant questions regarding travel, accommodation and so on (Pratt, 2010). Canada has strict customs regulations regarding bringing plants and food into the country. An individual may be subjected or have to pay a penalty if the items are not properly declared. The case of one accused black women arrived at Pearson Airport on a flight to Toronto from Jamaica. At the primary inspection, she was referred by a Canada Border Service Agency (CBSA) agent for secondary inspection. She was arrested because her luggage was filled with quantity of cocaine. The customs officers of the country have asked many questions, her hand were trembling and she had made no eye contact. A secondary inspection was testified on the basis of some indicators as the accused had cash paid ticket and it was the third party ticket and she has arrived from the drug source country i.e. Jamaica. An individual has to pass through many additional procedures of the customs if the person is bringing more items into the country. The customs officers mainly analyse the behaviour techniques and they observe the body language of the passengers. Border control officers often rely on the questions, seeking the answers as to whether the person is telling truth or not. As people many people are experienced in lying the words, the officers should be aware of the persons behaviour including their body language and observing their facial expressions. Many times passenger becomes nervous due to the questions asked by the customs officers, which led the customs officers to conduct a more detailed examination. Some of the activities which are done by the customs officers are behaviour analysis, observation and evaluating the persons behaviours. These activities help the customs officers to identify high-risk travellers. Many custom organisations such as CBSA as well as ABF and many more train their officers in the behaviour analysis technique s so that they can observe the behaviour of the passengers who arrive at the airports, marine terminals and other border crossings (Bhuyan, 2012). Suspicious behaviour includes- attempting to conceal the identity, preferring to settle the account early, enquiring about customs, police or the other law enforcement agencies activities and overly nervous. The persons behaviour while doing suspicious activity includes interested in specific or unusual locations, carrying unusual equipments and making unusual purchases. There are different emotions which are projected by people such as fear, anger, happiness, sadness, nervous and so on. Emotions are mainly recognised through the face of the person. The customs officers of the country use the behaviour techniques so that they will be also able to observe the facial expressions of the persons. Moreover, the facial expressions which displayed the emotions can be varying with the race, culture and language. The primary emotions are fear, nervous, anger, surprise, happiness and so on. Moreover, two or more of these emotions may combine or can reflect as further permutations with excitement and shame. There can be another issue that real facial expressions of emotions may be masked or simulated. A surprise is a very brief emotion and it is generated by the unexpected occurrence. Fear is unpleasant and the person may be frozen at the spot. Happiness is the elements of displaying the emotions it can be observed when the person has not any fear or anger in his/her mind. Moreover, the presence of a smile does not mean that someone is happy, it can mask as well. A genuine smile is reflected in the persons eyes. The customs officers use these behaviour tools so as to analyse or observe the behaviour of the person. The officers also analyse the behaviour of the person through body language which includes appearance and dress, voice/tone, hand movements and body movements. The appearance of the person and their dress are the part of nonverbal communication which can also influence the responses of the person. Observation technique which includes behaviour analysis is done by the customs officers so as to predict the behaviour and emotions of the passengers.
Pratt, A. (2010). Between a hunch and a hard place Making suspicion reasonable at the Canadian border.Social amp Legal Studies,19(4), 461-480.
Bhuyan, R. (2012). Negotiating citizenship on the frontlines How the devolution of Canadian immigration policy shapes service delivery to women fleeing abuse.Law amp Policy,34(2), 211-236.
Due to advancement in the technology personal search results have improved since 1998. U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Office of Field Operations (OFO) at the Detroit Metropolitan Airport recently has developed new technology so as to recognize chemical substances.CBP continuous adopted innovative tools and techniques so as to detect, intercept and prevent dangerous drugs from entering the United States. CBP officers at the Detroit Metropolitan Airport are trained on a new handheld elemental isotype analysis tool known as Gemini. This tool has been introduced so as to detect the dangerous substances and drugs coming intothe country through express consignment shipments and other modes of transportation (U.S. customs and border protection n.d.). The officers now have the ability to get instant results while protecting them and the public from hazardous materials. This has also related to saving the time of the officers. In the year 2016, the number of overdose deaths involving opioids was 5 times higher than in the year 1990. According to the CDC on an average 115 Americans die every day due to an opioid overdose. The rapid advancement of technology of biometrics is also finding the new applications in immigration control systems and border security. Many countries are using the software called Facial recognition software which alerts the customs officers if the person is using the false passport to enter the country illegally. The software compares the picture of the traveller with the database of the passport as well as visa pictures belonging to the people. The Customs and Border Protection, which is testing and evaluating technological changes in order to improve the speed and accuracy of a biometric collection. This would help to decrease ports of entry and exit wait times by refining the information resources available to border management personnel. The biometric software may include facial images, digital fingerprint scans or other biometrics. Biometrics may be collected from the travellers during the entering and exiting from the country. This biometrics can help the customs officers in storing the data in order to verify the identity of the person, confirm exit from the country, determine the admissibility of those seeking entry into the United States, prevent visa fraud, identify suspected criminals or terrorists and determine the admissibility of those seeking entry into the United States. Customs officials already have lots of such screening terminals at detention centres so as to collect biometric data which includes fingerprints as well as identifying features like scars and tattoos. Moreover, the scientists of U.S Army Research Laboratory have established the method using artificial intelligence so as to compare the thermal image of a persons face with existing visual images. This would also help in facial recognition in the night and in the low light environment. Arizonas border area which is north of Mexico is mostly a desert area which includes the rugged mountains and it is a challenging environment for Border Patrol agents. For many years, the officers have to do the jobs without much information and there is no awareness of the degree of the threats (U.S. customs and border protection n.d.). The agents mostly do their duties on the basis of their experience, knowledge and they chased answers to this vast area challenges. In recent years, the Customs and Border Protection are organizing many tools and techniques so as to help these border patrol agents. Most of the recent innovation such as advanced cameras to high powered radar. These tools are providing the awareness of threats in the territory. In the past years, the Border Petron has developed a three-pronged strategy for securing the countrys border includes - building and maintaining better fences, hiring more highly skilled agents, and deploying specialized technologies that help agents. Moreover, surveillance technologies are introduced so as to monitor the border area from a range of viewpoints. It also helps the agent in providing critical information to agents on the ground. Furthermore, the agents needed more technical tools in order to locate towers cleverly and to provide them with more portable systems (U.S. customs and border protection n.d.).The Border Patrol agents are using the surveillance technology which helps them in detecting, identifying, classifying, responding and resolving any sign of illegal activity which is taking at near the border. The aim of using Surveillance technology is to create trust of decreasing the dangers for the agents. Before the development of the advanced technologies, the agents spend more hours for tracking illegal border crossers and drug traffickers. Due to the use of surveillance tools, the time on task has been significantly reduced in tracking and watching and spending more time on other law enforcement activities.
U.S. customs and border protection (n.d.) CBP Deploys New Technology to Help Identify Dangerous Drugs
Retrieved from https//www.cbp.gov/newsroom/local-media-release/cbp-deploys-new-technology-help-identify-dangerous-drugsU.S. customs and border protection (n.d.) Surveillance technology boosts border security in Arizona
Retrieved from https//www.cbp.gov/frontline/frontline-june-az-technology
U.S. Customs and Border Protection is one of the largest law enforcement organizations, it facilitates lawful international travel and trade.US customs and Border Protection addresses and responds to the customers complaints. They are the Passenger Services Representatives and CBP INFO Center. The complaints are personally responded by the port directors and supervisors (U.S. Customs and Border Protection (n.d.). Online Card comment program card allows the travellers to express, in writing, the complaint they may have a result of their CBP processing services. Online comment cards which help CBP with the valuable feedback from the travellers. The CBP info centre is CBPs single point-of-contact for reviewing responding to, addressing and tracking all the complaints of the customers. The main focus of CBP is that all the complaints are taken as the opportunities in order to improve the services which are provided to the travellers in order to meet their expectations (U.S. Customs and Border Protection (n.d.). The INFO centre tracks and records the complaints and compliments. It is an automatic tracking system which ensures the proper review of all issues raised by the complainant. All the complaints are which are received at the port either verbally or through telephone is recorded in the complaint information data sheet. Supervisors, directors of the port agencies and the representatives of the passenger services are responsible for addressing the complaint within one day so as to acknowledge the receipt. Moreover, they are also responsible for solving the problem during the initial conversation with the complainant. The travel companies can solve the problems of the customers by training the staff on how to respond to the customers professionally. Hence, the travel companies should respond the problems of the customers quickly and they should politely thank them for raising the complaints and they should continuously engage the customers.it is very important to not jump into the conclusions directly the firm should focus more on solving the problems of the customers. In todays digital age the customers can raise the complaint from anywhere. There is intense competition in the industry, so the travel companies should address the complaints of the customers very quickly and promptly. Often the customers are more satisfied with the verbal apology and caring smile. The average customers in the travel and tourism want to be more satisfied with the services offered.
American society of travel advisors (ASTA) is another customer services website who also handles the customers complaints in an effective manner. If something was wrong with the holidays or any issue has observed by the customers than this website provides advice and potential solutions on to resolve the issues of the customers (American society of travel advisors (n.d.). The company has an Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)service that has been created to resolve the customers issues or complaints. ASTA is approved by Government as a Consumer ADR body under the Alternative Dispute Resolution for Consumer Disputes (Competent Authorities and Information) Regulations 2015. The customer can make a complaint through the online process and then the company communicates with the customers through websites, emails and text messages. One of the main functions of ASTAs Consumer Affairs Department is to solve the travel-related complaints of the customers (American society of travel advisors (n.d.). ASTA considers certain guidelines which include the complaint must be less than 6 months old and the customers must contact the company complained in the written form, allowing the firm to solve the problem. The complaint must be submitted to ASTA in the written form along with the supporting documentation. ASTA try to solve the problems of the customers on the spot itself. If the complaints are not solved than the customers can register their complaint after the return of the trip. Sometimes the complaint cannot be satisfied by dealing directly with the firm involved and the response is also not generated by the firms. Therefore, the customers can directly approach to the Consumer Affairs Department of the American Society of Travel Advisors.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection and American society of travel advisors (ASTA) are the organizations who handle the customer travel complaints very effectively. Therefore, the staff of these organizations is trained so that they can solve the problems of the customers. Hence, these organizations try to solve the customers problems on a quick basis and complaints are taken as the opportunities in order to improve the services which are provided to the travellers in order to meet their expectations. Hence, the travel companies should resolve the problems of the customers as quickly as possible and they should continuously engage the customers because in this competitive era it is very difficult to retain the customers. The firm should not jump into the conclusions directly and they should focus more on solving the problems of the customers.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection (n.d.) CBP INFO Center
Retrieved from https//www.cbp.gov/travel/customer-service/handle-complaints
American society of travel advisors (n.d.) Consumer Complaints
Retrieved from https//www.asta.org/About/content.cfmItemNumber753
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