Understanding human behaviours is one of the crucial and complex factors which requires utmost attention, values, and approaches to evaluate and fix any found problems or challenges of the related topic or study. Concerning such fact, in psychology, several theories, concepts, and ideas used to discuss and assess the human rights, emotions, and behaviours effectively. Besides that, the psychology theory consists of two main elements an those are, to define behaviours and make estimates about forthcoming behaviours of the aspects. Thus, this particular paper will help understand the aims and focus of their study on different psychological perspectives, methodologies, and benefits of implementing such in assessing human behaviours tremendously. In addition to that, several pieces of literature have been reviewed to scrutinize facts and insights into the various factors involved in understanding the challenges and benefits of applying such methodologies in situations.
According to a critical study by Graber et al., (2015), has performed a new examination concerning whether and how an adjacent supportive friendship may enable psychological flexibility in socio-economically susceptible British teenagers (Graber et al., 2015). In the study, Graber et al., (2015) have taken an overall of 409 teenagers which comprise of 160 boys and 245 girls within an age range of 11 to 19 years old for their study to assess the significance and variables closely (Graber et al., 2015). With such factors, the group of authors have completed self-report measures of quality of close friendships, psychological resilience, societal support, and other concerned resources (Graber et al., 2015). Relating to the research study, the findings have revealed an important optimistic connotation amongst supposed friendship value and flexibility (Graber et al., 2015).
The indicated relationship was enabled via inter-related methodologies of emerging a productive managing design, effort, supportive network of friendship, and declined detached and expressing managing of friendships (Graber et al., 2015). It has been identified during the research progression that while defending processes were positively and importantly existing across the genders; however, it is clear that boys were more susceptible to the harmful impacts of disconnected and expressing in terms of managing as compared to girls (Graber et al., 2015). The authors have also suggested that personal close friendship is a crucial and potential protective methodology which is accessible to most of the teenagers (Graber et al., 2015).
Now concerning this research study, the authors have significantly described and conclude about the vulnerability of deleterious effects in a close friendship among youngsters (Graber et al., 2015). The study has emphasized an important understanding of the psychological behaviours of the teenagers in the present scenario to have an idea of their behavioural perspectives towards the meaning of close friendship. According to the behavioural and cognitive theories of psychology, this makes clear there is a relevant link with this topic and the researches have used the said theories effectively and efficient to conclude the findings and research study successfully ensuring accuracy and reliability at the same time (Graber et al., 2015). On the other hand, several factors and implications have been tested in concern to hypothesis testing to assess the vital data and bring out the best outcome to conclude the research study effectively (Graber et al., 2015).
The findings of the research report which has been developed by Graber et al., (2015) are logical in nature and provides a substantial understanding of the various factors involved in the deteriorating close friendship among teenagers (Graber et al., 2015). And the vulnerability of such harmful impacts among boys and girls has shown significant comprehension of the teenager’s gender. Besides, in terms of psychological resilience boys are on the higher side as compared to girls. This report is useful in assessing close friendship effectiveness among genders and the psychological factors involved in measuring psychology flexibility and significance among the group proficiently (Graber et al., 2015).
Another study by Greenberger et al., 2008 which specifically focus on identifying and analyzing the attitudes and behavioural factors of youths in an educational or college setting (Greenberger et al., 2008). According to the research study, the authors have described that the occasional shreds of evidence in their report that recommends an increase in permitted attitudes and behaviours of teenagers within schools and school environment (Greenberger et al., 2008). By utilizing a newly build scale to analyze the academic entitlement (AE) in order to measure the expectations of high numbers or grades with moderate effort in examinations by the students and demanding attitude towards their tutors to entitle the specific student according to the results of the assessment (Greenberger et al., 2008). The authors have also claimed that their research study was the first to inspect the occurrence of those two variables methodically (Greenberger et al., 2008). Concerning such fact, the two assessment has been conducted in ethnic college students from diverse backgrounds consist of mainly from Southeast and East Asian American as their samples for study in two sets, trailed by Caucasians, Latinos, and different gatherings with a total number of 839 students with an age group of 18 to 25 years old.
Hence, this indicates, the analyzed personality, child education approach, and inspirational relates of AE has provided significant knowledge about its importance and benefits effectively (Greenberger et al., 2008). It has been noted that AE was most unequivocally identified with exploitive attitudes towards others and simply concerning to a general feeling of privilege and self-admiration (Greenberger et al., 2008). Previous researches related to the topic has indicated that students who have reported more academically entitled attitudes supposed their guardians or parents as applying accomplishment pressure which was measured by comparison with other teenagers in society in regard to good marks in subjects or exams for that matter, higher scores than their classmates which subsequently leads to anxiety and extrinsic inspiration, and getting occupied with progressively dishonesty against academics negatively (Greenberger et al., 2008). AE was not essentially connected with GPA of the students or youth’s competence ability and results; however, it assists in providing substantial idea and notion for the students or youth ability to cope with the educational pressure.
Thus, it indicates that with the identified and said approach by (Greenberger et al., 2008), it is assumed and understood that the methodology of AE is effective enough to assess the varied attitudes and behaviours of youths or teenagers in a college setting predominantly (Greenberger et al., 2008). The approach is proficient and consists of a theoretical perspective within it too closely related the issues and factors with the psychological aspects (Greenberger et al., 2008). This ensures that the problem and factors are integrated with the psychological understanding of youth and teenagers in a college environment in regard to their behavioural perspectives and outcome (Greenberger et al., 2008).
According to the psychological concept of self-entitlement or psychological entitlement, it critically refers to an exaggerated sense of proudness as it indicates that the self-concept or sense of deservingness, pride, and overstated anticipations to receive special rewards and treatment without any reciprocals, as stated in a journal of social psychology (Lange et al., 2018). Thereby, this clearly states or relates with the said understanding of the research study by Greenberger et al., (2008) that self-entitlement is a crucial factor that needs to be noticed by parents and teachers for their students and wards as it emerges by inflation in sense and directs to self-concept psychological factors (Greenberger et al., 2008). Teenagers and children often fall under this psychological attitude or concept that creates a negative impact on their psychological progression for the long run and well prospects effectively (Greenberger et al., 2008).
Now concerning a study or research of significant by Grant, (2013), which performs an identical study of providing a new perspective on the personality qualities effectively and proficiently (Grant, 2013). It has been known and well aware that personality traits play a vital role in understanding or measuring an individual’s character or potentiality in concern to success factors. Relating to such fact, the research report by (Grant, 2013) has tried to show or indicate that in terms of measuring or assessing a person’s success rate in organizations or for people who look for selecting jobs (Grant, 2013). In the study, the author has defined about various psychological concepts and behavioural factors that are essential to identify and understand in order to assess one’s capability and skills required to bridge the gap effectively (Grant, 2013). Personality traits various personalities which include extrovert, introvert, and ambivert; however, concerning this research report, the author has specifically focused on the two traits. It includes extrovert and ambivert. In term of psychological and behavioural perspectives, both factors are common and can be found in organizations and within the employees of such firms.
According to Grant, (2013) despite several assumptions of societies and organizations that extroverts are effective and potentially fit to achieve results; however, the author has indicated that research has shown weakness and contradictory relationship amongst extroverts and sales productivity of sales professionals (Grant, 2013). The author has diligently argued that in light of the puzzling results and societies assumptions, relationship amongst extrovert and performance of sales is not direct yet curved (Grant, 2013). In addition to that, Grant, (2013) has stated that ambiverts; however, perform better as compared to extrovert personalities, as they are the mix of both introvert and extrovert (Grant, 2013). According to psychological concepts and understanding, it is well known that combination or integration of both the personality traits can be of substantial benefits to self and the organization as well (Geukes et al., 2017). Concerning such fact, it has been clear that the author has tried to indicate as per the understanding of personality traits (Grant, 2013).
As per Grant, (2013) ambiverts are probable to express the adequate amount of confidence and interest towards influencing the customer and closing a sale effectively and efficient at the same time (Grant, 2013). However, one of the most effective capabilities of them is that ambiverts are effectively inclined towards listening to customer’s specific needs, wants, and interests to customize the product or improve to meet their required needs and wants (Grant, 2013). Besides that, with this trait, ambiverts are less like to appears to be overconfident and overexcited before potential and new customers (Grant, 2013). The author has used the example of a study of some 340 outbound call centre or customer support executives who have supported the estimated reversed curve-shaped or literally U-shaped relationship between extroverts and total sales revenue of the organization. Thus, with this research study, it helps understand and give a new perspective on the personality traits of the employees or individual of an organization in terms of sales productivity. Besides, provides a substantial insight regarding individuals who tends to select jobs and for organizations who measure their employees based on their personality traits while hiring for a job and training employees.
Geukes, K., van Zalk, M., & Back, M. (2017). Understanding personality development. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 42(1), 43-51. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025416677847
Graber, R., Turner, R., & Madill, A. (2015). Best friends and better coping: Facilitating psychological resilience through boys’ and girls’ closest friendships. British Journal of Psychology, 107(2), 338-358. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12135
Grant, A. (2013). Rethinking the Extraverted Sales Ideal. Psychological Science, 24(6), 1024-1030. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612463706
Greenberger, E., Lessard, J., Chen, C., & Farruggia, S. (2008). Self-Entitled College Students: Contributions of Personality, Parenting, and Motivational Factors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(10), 1193-1204. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9284-9
Lange, J., Redford, L., & Crusius, J. (2018). A Status-Seeking Account of Psychological Entitlement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 45(7), 1113-1128. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167218808501
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