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Introduction

Human beings are becoming prey of traffickers in both national and international market. The lives of women and children are particularly in danger as they have become victims of human traffickers who are processing human trafficking for economic gains. Humans are marketed, transported and sold to the other person for getting exploited by the owners for prostitution, pornography and forced labour. It is a modern form of human trade through which individuals sell humans and earn huge amounts of money in return. The reasons for caring out trafficking practice are due to poverty, violence and discrimination. The underlying causes of human trafficking include inequality between the countries, growing demand for cheap labour, restrictive immigration policies and so on(Burke 2017).

The exploitation of human beings for economic gains is carried out for ages. The movement of people across the countries for economic gains needs to be addressed immediately. Trafficking is a complex process and thus this phenomenon is divided into three categories which include recruitment, transferal and exploitation of human at the destination. During this process, a series of rights of human beings are violated. The victims, in this case, have to suffer worst conditions even they can be subjected to rape, assault and maltreatment. Countries need to combat human trafficking with a wide range of actions. Since the problem crosses the nations thus the countries must come forward and cooperate to remove these practices by uprooting the causes which force people to indulge themselves in these activities.

Causes of Human Trafficking

Human trafficking practices are complex and to understand the causes behind, it is important to analyze the immediate, precipitating causes and underlying social determinants. Economic, social and political factors all play a very important part in increasing the cases of human trafficking in the country. It is seen that people who are exposed to vulnerable situations like becoming a victim of natural disaster or armed conflict are the ones who have adopted human trafficking as their business. It is because in their adverse situation neither the government nor the local authority members came up for help(Burke 2017). The support system was collapsed, to survive and feed their families they needed work and this is why they began tracking human beings or their body parts to the other people. Organ trafficking is an unseen part of human trafficking where traffickers sell the organs of one’s body part to be implanted in the body of the others for some medical treatment. It leaves the donors and recipients both in lifetime health consequences. The kidney is the most common organ that is illicitly traded to the patients in the black market. It is found in the research of the World Health Organization that 10,000 kidneys are traded annually and one in every two hours (WHO 10th October 2012, 90). The number is stark and must be stopped at any rate.

Economic Causes

The people are becoming a victim of human trafficking due to the improper allocation of resources. The organizations fail to meet the basic needs of the people. Many families due to inadequate income have to suffer vulnerable conditions. It is observed that social security schemes that were launched for the poor people were either lacking or do not reaching the poorest and disadvantaged people in the society (Gupta 2017).The chronic shortage of paid worker increased unemployment in the area. Due to a shortage of money, families were not able to educate their children. Moreover, girls were restricted from getting an education and this is why most of them had to depend on others for reading and writing. Children were thus exploited as beggars or were forced to get indulged in criminal activities. I addition to this, poor people always find difficulty in getting credit for opening a small business at reasonable rates. To earn money, traffickers either used to bribe the person or promise them to provide a good job in far off region ones the person agrees he sells the organs of the person or the person to the purchasers.

Social-Cultural Causes

It is generally observed that women’s get into an easy prey of the traffickers because since ages women are always considered as a subordinate to women. It is one of the major reason why the demand of sexuality and other services are increasing in the market. Not only women, but girls also have to face the same social discrimination. They are considered as a burden to the family even the attitude for the women have not changed (Thiemann 2018). The common desire of men to handle the sexuality of the women is another issue as it is often seen in most of the cultures that men’s sexuality is a natural thing while girl’s sexuality is an aberration and tainted.

It is also seen through cases that if a woman asks for a divorce they are thrown out of the houses and this is the very reason they become a victim of human trafficking. In addition to this, poor and marginalized families think they have full right over their children and thus send them for the work in far off regions when their age is of getting an education. Apart from this, it is also claimed that poor people are seldom treated with respect by the police. This lay another ground for exploitation and abuse in society. The western lifestyle displayed in the television also force young people to carve for money to purchase the consumer goods in the market. Young people in the desire of earning money become an easy victim of human trafficking(Mawere 2019). Sometimes they even get ready to sell their body parts to earn money for their families. Human traffickers always target those people who need the money and have faced advertise in life because they can easily get convinced and get ready to take the risk.

Legislative Causes

Many countries in the world do not have proper legislation for Human and organ trafficking. The countries which have these policies do not follow the law and legislation that are applied to human trafficking. It is seen that there vulnerable and low-income people have very little respect in the eyes of others. It is the responsibility of the government authorities to protect women and children from getting exploited by the people. But these authorities are rife with corruption and they do not take action against the person who abuses women and children for personal desires and traffickers for economic gains. Moreover, it is also experienced that the coordination with the judicial authority of the other country is poor both in terms of legislation and practical application. Strict immigration laws in some countries force people to take the mercy of traffickers or else get into some illegal activities to cross the borders (Blom2020, 1275-1298). The vulnerable groups are more likely to become prey of traffickers. Concerning organ trafficking, it was found that the US and Canada do not include selling body parts of the individuals as a part of human trafficking.

States like Massachusetts have some laws to combat organ trafficking in the state. Inadequate laws and poor enforcements make it very difficult for the victims. Informal sector mainly private organizations make it hard for the victims forcing them to do the domestic work (Zimmerman and Kiss 2017,11). The risk of this offence is very less thus traffickers continue to do their business without having any tension that they will be caught and may have to either fill penalties or may even be prisoned for carrying out the illegal activity in the country. The chances of convection are slight as the offence is difficult to prove in front of the concerned authorities.

Measures for Combating Human Trafficking

All the departments despite the diversities need to come at a common pattern to combat trafficking from the country by emphasizing on the three components of the strategies which include preventive measures, strengthening legislation by increasing investigation and prosecution of offenders and supporting and protecting the victims from the abuse and violence. It is seen through the findings that victims of human and organ trafficking fear to approach the police and thus the organizations need to remove the fear and hesitation they have by making them trust the law and judiciary system of the country. Here are some ways in which organizations can fight human trafficking.

Anti-Trafficking Cell

The organization must create an anti-trafficking cell where different classes of people will be trained to identify the indicators of human trafficking (Gibbons and Stoklosa 2016, 715-719). Awareness training will help to curb human trafficking from the state. It can be done by making people aware of how trafficking is done with the help of documentaries and short films. They need to be aware of the slavery that exists today along with the knowledge of sex trafficking. They must also understand how forced labour can affect global food supplies (Farrell et al. 2018, 233-250). The members of the anti-trafficking cell will closely monitor the development projects and draw up plans together.

Role of Municipalities

Municipalities play a significant role in tackling human and organ trafficking in the area. They actively look for the signs to stop trafficking at an early stage. The staff members are provided training from the police department on how to deal with the human traffickers. A basic framework is developed for them so that they can operate in any situation properly. Apart from this, the staff members of the municipal corporation can make their own rules to combat human trafficking. They can even host community meetings where the youth and females would be trained on how to recognize the trafficking recruiters and turn the dangerous situation(Alpert and Chin 2017,379-400). Community members must also play a very important role in safeguarding children from becoming a victim of this illegal activity. Children must be trained to safely navigate out of an uncomfortable situation and how to reach out for help at the earliest.

Helping Victims of Human Trafficking

Central government must take measure to improve the assistance and support that is provided to all the people who have become a victim of human or organ trafficking. They must be provided with better amenities and psychological help so that they can be healed properly. They must be provided free aid of services so that they need to have to worry about anything else. Government hospitals and care centers must treat the patient with the utmost care as they have suffered both physical and emotional torture(Hachey and Phillippi 2017, 31-51). The organizations must give employment to the victims of human trafficking so that they can survive their lives without depending upon the others. The organizations must take the policies strictly so that it can protect its citizen’s from this havoc. In addition to this, the organization must suppress and punish trafficking in persons.

Conclusion

It can be concluded from the above findings that human trafficking has become one of the biggest concerns of the authorities these days. Women and children have become the worst sufferers of abuse, violence and sex. Children are forced by the traffickers to work as a labour. The condition is getting worst due to poverty, racism and discrimination of marginalized groups of people. Women and children are easy prey of the traffickers because they can be influenced easily. Unaware of the situations they have to face dangerous adversities. There are several causes of human trafficking but gender inequality is the biggest of all. The need of the hour is to put it into the agenda of the international cooperation’s and carry out all the measures to provide gender equality. Both the government and non-government players need to handle the situation of human trafficking by taking stringent actions in this regards. They must bring out polices and if needed ask for the international agreements so that together the entire world can stop selling of human beings and organs in the world due to immigration reasons.

References

Alpert, E.J. and Chin, S.E., 2017. Human trafficking: Perspectives on prevention. In Human trafficking is a public health issue (pp. 379-400). Springer, Cham.

Blom, N., 2020. Human Trafficking: An International Response. The Palgrave International Handbook of Human Trafficking, pp.1275-1298.

Burke, M.C. ed., 2017. Human trafficking: interdisciplinary perspectives. Routledge Location: London

Farrell, A., Pfeffer, R., Dank, M. and Owens, C., 2018. Human Trafficking for Labor Exploitation. Transnational Crime and Global Security, pp.233-250.

Gibbons, P. and Stoklosa, H., 2016. Identification and treatment of human trafficking victims in the emergency department: a case report. The Journal of emergency medicine, 50(5), pp.715-719.

Gupta, R., 2017. Unit-3 Causes Of Human Trafficking. IGNOU.

Hachey, L.M. and Phillippi, J.C., 2017. Identification and management of human trafficking victims in the emergency department. Advanced emergency nursing journal, 39(1), pp.31-51.

Mawere, M., 2019. Bound together in the digital era: Poverty, migration and human trafficking. Mobile Africa: Human Trafficking and the Digital Divide, p.63.

Thiemann, I.K., 2018. Human Trafficking as a Migration Crisis–Gender, Precariousness and access to labour rights. Oxford University Press. Location: London

World Health Organization. 2012. Keeping kidneys, Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Retried from: https://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/90/10/12-021012/en/ Retrieved on: 30th May, 2020. Volume 90.

Zimmerman, C. and Kiss, L., 2017. Human trafficking and exploitation: a global health concern. PLoS medicine, 14(11).

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