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Anatomical and Physiological Structures 

Urinary System Anatomy

The organs like kidneys, urinary bladder, ureters, and urethra all together makes the Urinary system. This system helps in elimination of waste from the blood producing urine. In addition to this, blood pressure, water, calcium, ions, pH and RBCs homeostasis is maintained by it. The kidneys, located in the abdominal cavity is covered with adipose tissue around them which grip them and protect from external injury. This organ flushes out waste, excess ions, and other by products formed by metabolism to form urine. Ureter carries the urine from the kidneys to the urinary.

Ureters pair of tubes which are 10-12 inches long goes parallel to the body’s vertebral column (The Johns Hopkins University,2020). The peristalsis movement and gravity of smooth muscles helps in the movement of urine to the bladder. At the entry point into the bladder, the ureters ends are sealed by the ureterovesical valves. The ureterovesical valves prevent back flow of urine into the kidneys. The urine now reaches urinary bladder, which is a sac-like hollow organ, situated at pelvis inferior end near the midline of the body.

Urine fills the bladder and expands the walls of it which are elastic. The bladder can hold up to 700 to 900 mL of urine. The urine from the bladder next travels outside the body by the tube called Urethra. Urine movement through the urethra is regulated by muscles in the urethral sphincter muscles (IQWiG, 2018). The involuntarily action of urethral sphincter muscles helps in distention of urine. And the voluntary action of external urethral sphincter allows urine to pass through the urethra.

Urinary System Physiology

The homeostasis of body is maintained by kidneys by regulating the excretion of substances from the body. The kidneys maintain the balance of ions of sodium, calcium, potassium, phosphate, chloride and magnesium either by conserving them or excreting them to maintain the balance (Shrimanker & Bhattarai, 2020). The kidneys maintain the pH of the blood by adjusting the levels of hydrogen ions (H+) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-), which helps in maintaining the buffer. To maintain the isotonic environment for the cells of the body need an electrolyte and fluid balance. The kidneys take care of  maintain the osmotic balance of the body by regulating the amount of water excreted and absorbed from the blood.

It also maintains blood pressure on the body to help preserve homeostasis. If the blood pressure of body lowers down, the kidney raises the amount of blood in the body by absorbing more blood. The reabsorption of water into the blood can be reduced by producing watery and diluted urine. Through this the blood volume is minimised (Wadei & Textor, 2012). The kidneys will release the enzyme renin when blood pressure goes down to constrict the blood vessels and release more urine, allowing more water to stay in the blood. The nephron is the kidney's functional unit which filters blood for urine production. The urination process starts when the urethral sphincter muscles relax, allowing the urine to pass into the urethra.

References for Urinary System

IQWiG. (2018). How does the urinary system work? Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279384/ Shrimanker, I. & Bhattarai, S. (2020). Electrolytes. StatPearls Publishing. Treasure Island (FL)

The Johns Hopkins University. (2020).Anatomy of the Urinary System. Retrieved from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/anatomy-of-the-urinary-system Wadei H. M., Textor, S. C. (2012). The role of the kidney in regulating arterial blood pressure. Nature Reiews Nephrology. 8(10). 602-9.

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