Research and Evaluate Legal Research Method

Table of Contents

Introduction.

Impact of IoT on Individuals and Businesses.

Relationship Between Cloud Computing and IoT..

Issues Related to IoT..

The Biggest IoT issues for law firms.

IoT Security Solutions for the Most Common IoT Security Issues.

Conclusion.

References.

Introduction to Research and Evaluate Legal Research Method

The Internet of Things, or IoT, applies to the thousands of physical objects that are now linked to the Web worldwide, and capture and exchange data (Ray, 2018). With the advent of the super-cheap computer chips and the ubiquity of wireless networks, everything can be converted into a member of the IoT, from anything as tiny as an airplane to anything as big. Linking and attaching sensors to all these different artifacts brings a degree of artificial knowledge to otherwise ignorant machines, allowing them not to require humankind to relay real-time data. The Internet of Things renders the environment around us more informed and sensitive and blends interactive and physical environments. Many big structures may be loaded with a huge range of smaller IoT modules like a jet plane, already packed with thousands of sensors to capture and retransmit data to ensure that it operates effectively (Li, Da & Zhao, 2018). Much more deeply, intelligent community programs fill entire regions with sensors that help us perceive and monitor the climate. This paper is about the impact of the internet of things on the lives of the individuals and business operations, along with stating some issues related to the law firms and possible solutions for mitigating the challenges associated with the use of internet of things in the everyday life.

Impact of IoT on Individuals and Businesses

The concept of application of sensors and knowledge to simple products was debated throughout the 1980s and 1990s (and maybe there were other older ancestors) but development was poor as the technology wasn't ready aside from certain early prototypes, including an internet selling computer. Artifacts did not easily interact because of the large size of the chips. Cheap and efficient processors were required to do all but one aspect, before the communication of trillions of devices became cost-efficiency (Caron, Bosua, Maynard & Ahmad, 2016). Much of this problem is resolved with the introduction of RFID tags — low-capacity wireless chips — coupled with the expanded development of mobile access and cable and satellite networks. IoT is seeking an intelligent, more observable, and more productive world such as our houses, workplaces, and so on. Intelligent devices like Amazon's Echo and Google Home make listening, setting timers, or receiving information simpler. Home surveillance services ease tracking, displaying, and speaking to guests, what is going on inside and outside. In the meantime, intelligent thermostats will help us heat our houses when we enter, and intelligent lightbulbs will make it seem like we 're home even though we are not.

Relationship Between Cloud Computing and IoT

All cloud infrastructure and the IoT maximize the productivity of day-to-day operations and support each other. IoT creates vast volumes of knowledge and cloud storage offers a route to the processing of this data (Stergiou, Plageras, Psannis & Gupta, 2020). Often Cloud services ask for a price per service plan, but you just pay for the device you use, not for more. Another way cloud vendors will take advantage of smaller IoT businesses and rising operating expenses for IoT organizations is to save on volume. Cloud Infrastructure also profits from Cloud for IoT, which today allows greater, for users, collaboration. Developers will easily view data and function on ventures by enabling developers to store and access data remotely. This helps IoT businesses to easily adjust and distribute capital for specific fields, eventually by storing data in the Cloud (Pan & McElhannon, 2017). In recent years, big data has emerged and the cloud has become the choice of architecture for the developers. The vast volumes of big data are available through the cloud for most companies.

Issues Related to IoT

With comparison to both of these benefits, however, threats related to privacy breaches are also involved. Smart metering increases electricity efficiency by the tracking of the activity or the existence of individuals in a house and shut down energy-consuming machines while nobody is home or in unoccupied spaces (El-Hajj, Chamoun, Fadlallah & Serhrouchini, 2017). Yet protection may be compromised if these reports of our activities or absence from the house was deceived. The recording of patients' or the elderly 's behavior may often also be viewed as an intrusion with their safety. This invasive surveillance of people may also cause unwanted social consequences and behavioral patterns to change. The protection in data gathering, who is allowed to use it, and whether it could be used often poses questions (Abi Sen, Eassa, Jambi & Yamin, 2018). This is neither fresh nor unjustified that there are such privacy and protection issues regarding potential technologies. People thought the same about the email services on the Internet which were first made accessible or reached through our data in the cloud. This would be essential to see how the IoT industry tackles these problems. If they will reliably show the healthy usage of IoT, it will open up great possibilities for everyone for safer, healthier, and efficient living.

While IoT devices may render companies even more competitive, they do have risks. IoT systems may be exploited, like every other internet-compatible computer, since they are wired to the Internet. It is important to consider the protection flaws in IoT systems to secure the network adequately. The Federal Privacy Act (2008) is one such activity that is concerned with the protection of the individual’s private information. The expansion of target surfaces attributable to an increasing number of endpoints is a significant protection issue for IoT. In a network, some computers are linked to the internet as a whole-each of which provides a point of entry for bad actors to open the network to external threats. The network attack surface contains all the locations where attacks are likely and increases for all new devices connecting to the internet (Kumar et al. 2019). However, if an attacker has no hope of accessing a system, a major danger to safety may emerge from the vast number of IoT devices carried by companies.

The Biggest IoT Issues for Law Firms

IoT's main challenges involve storing, accessing, and exchanging sensitive details mostly through sensors (Folk, 2016). Protection tools, such as monitors and puppets, are a growing aspect in small business networks. If a cybercriminal becomes exposed, significant problems are immediately caused. Office devices, including printers, are also potential points of entry – a hacked printer might potentially make it possible for the intruder to view everything that is written or checked on a workstation (Poudel, 2016). The hacker may access their functions through a compromised IoT computer. Whilst the coffee maker does not require an intruder to do more harmful stuff than boiling a latte, a compromised heating device or appliances might build a company of even more chaos (Ehret & Wirtz, 2017). Networks called botnets can contain a large number of infected computers. A botnet can be used for several items but is better recognized for its use of DDoS assaults (Beale & Berris, 2017). DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks are a targeted server, machine, or network request stream that the bad actor wants to download from infected devices. When so many network requests are being handled for the aim, it fails and is not accessible to actual users (Chatfield & Reddick, 2019).

IoT Security Solutions for the Most Common IoT Security Issues

The network connecting to internet back-end networks may be secured and safeguarded by the introduction of conventional endpoint protection technologies such as antivirus, ransomware, firewalls, and intrusion choice and monitoring schemes (Alaba et al. 2017). Enable IoT devices to be authenticated by integrating several operator management apps for a single IoT system and by incorporating strong security frameworks including two-factor authentication, digital signatures, and biometric identification. To secure users' privacy and avoid infringements of IoT data, crypt data between IoT devices and backend applications at rest, and in traffic-utilizing regular cryptographic algorithms and completely authenticated lifecycle processes to improve consumer data protection and privacy throughout the board. Using shared IoT authentication measures such as digital keys, cryptographic key, and lifecycle capacities including public/private key creation, delivery, management, and revocation to maintain a safe link between an IoT device & an App (HaddadPajouh et al. 2019). Using IoT Protection Analytics tools to recognize IoT-specific threats or intrusions that conventional network security technologies such as firewalls can not recognize.

Using IoT API protection measures to secure the completeness of data movements between IoT devices, backend systems, and applications utilizing recorded REST-based APIs, yet to ensure that APIs are shared or future risks and attacks against specific APIs are found only in approved devices, developers and apps. To guarantee the reliability of IoT hardware, build a reliable testing platform. It involves thorough testing of the selection, capability, and latency of the IoT system. Also, the IoT chip companies do have a need, because most of the usable IoT devices today are inexpensive and battery-operated, to improve their processors for better protection and lower power usage without rendering them too pricey or too inefficient to use in existing IoT devices (Razzaq et al. 2017). Finally, IoT device manufacturers and IoT app developing companies must also take the initiative to teach employees and users about the latest IoT threats, infringements, and security solutions.

Conclusion on Research and Evaluate Legal Research Method

The internet of things is beginning to change everyday activities. The IoT is an everyday entity that helps us to store, transmit, and retrieve information: mobile objects, cars, buildings, etc. through integrated hardware, applications, sensors, and network communication. This is neither fresh nor unjustifiable to have these privacy or safety concerns over potential technologies. This will be crucial in how the IoT industry deals with these problems. If the effective utilization of IoT can be reliably shown it will open up doors for a safer, healthier, and more efficient way of life for everyone.

The IoT still has its opportunities and threats, like any other new technology. At the one side, technology supporters and IoT product makers advocate the internet of things as a tool for making it smoother and healthier by utilizing millions of advanced IoT products (e.g. smart TVs, smart fridges, smart air conditioners, smartphones, smart washing machines, smart running shoes, smart police surveillance, and traffic systems). digital phones are now accessible for the usage. The IT security professionals, on the other hand, find the data protection issues of IoT devices unnecessary and too risky.

References for Research and Evaluate Legal Research Method

Abi Sen, A. A., Eassa, F. A., Jambi, K., & Yamin, M. (2018). Preserving privacy in the internet of things: a survey. International Journal of Information Technology10(2), 189-200.

Alaba, F. A., Othman, M., Hashem, I. A. T., & Alotaibi, F. (2017). Internet of Things security: A survey. Journal of Network and Computer Applications88, 10-28.

Australian Government. (n.d). The Privacy Act. Retrieved from https://www.oaic.gov.au/privacy/the-privacy-act/#:~:text=The%20Privacy%20Act%20includes%2013,as%20most%20Australian%20Government%20agencies.&text=The%20Privacy%20Act%20also%20regulates,and%20health%20and%20medical%20research.

Beale, S. S., & Berris, P. (2017). Hacking the Internet of Things: Vulnerabilities, Dangers, and Legal Responses. Duke L. & Tech. Rev.16, 161.

Caron, X., Bosua, R., Maynard, S. B., & Ahmad, A. (2016). The Internet of Things (IoT) and its impact on individual privacy: An Australian perspective. Computer Law & Security Review32(1), 4-15.

Chatfield, A. T., & Reddick, C. G. (2019). A framework for the Internet of Things-enabled smart government: A case of IoT cybersecurity policies and use cases in the US federal government. Government Information Quarterly36(2), 346-357.

Ehret, M., & Wirtz, J. (2017). Unlocking value from machines: business models and the industrial internet of things. Journal of Marketing Management33(1-2), 111-130.

El-Hajj, M., Chamoun, M., Fadlallah, A., & Serhrouchni, A. (2017, October). Analysis of authentication techniques in the Internet of Things (IoT). In 2017 1st Cyber Security in Networking Conference (CSNet) (pp. 1-3). IEEE.

Folk, C. W. (2016). The Internet of Things and Cybersecurity: What Does a Lawyer Need to Know. Syracuse J. Sci. & Tech. L.33, 48.

HaddadPajouh, H., Dehghantanha, A., Parizi, R. M., Aledhari, M., & Karimipour, H. (2019). A survey on the internet of things security: Requirements, challenges, and solutions. Internet of Things, 100129.

Kumar, D., Paccagnella, R., Murley, P., Hennenfent, E., Mason, J., Bates, A., & Bailey, M. (2019). Emerging threats in the internet of things voice services. IEEE Security & Privacy17(4), 18-24.

Li, S., Da Xu, L., & Zhao, S. (2018). 5G Internet of Things: A survey. Journal of Industrial Information Integration10, 1-9.

Pan, J., & McElhannon, J. (2017). Future edge cloud and edge computing for internet of things applications. IEEE Internet of Things Journal5(1), 439-449.

Poudel, S. (2016). Internet of Things: underlying technologies, interoperability, and threats to privacy and security. Berkeley Technology Law Journal31(2), 997-1022.

Ray, P. P. (2018). A survey on Internet of Things architectures. Journal of King Saud University-Computer and Information Sciences30(3), 291-319.

Razzaq, M. A., Gill, S. H., Qureshi, M. A., & Ullah, S. (2017). Security issues in the Internet of Things (IoT): a comprehensive study. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications8(6), 383.

Stergiou, C. L., Plageras, A. P., Psannis, K. E., & Gupta, B. B. (2020). Secure machine learning scenario from big data in cloud computing via the internet of things network. In Handbook of Computer Networks and Cyber Security (pp. 525-554). Springer, Cham.

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