A case can be described as any service, project or response that is worked upon by case managers over a period of time to achieve solution, development, completion or delivery of that project or service (Frankel, Gelman, & Pastor, 2018). This case involves multiple persons who work together to complete the case. The effective delivery or completion of a case depends on the process of it and how well it is managed. Thus, case management is key in efficient delivery of the service. This case management helps to improve the process and performance of the service or project.
Case management in simple terms can be defined as professional process or method that involves assessment, examination, planning, implementation and coordination for effective delivery of services to an individual’s or client’s needs (Frankel, Gelman, & Pastor, 2018). It also includes the process of monitoring and evaluation after the implementation of services to individuals. It is essentially managing a case in the most efficient manner. For example, two individuals of the same demographics can have very different needs and circumstances. Thus, the role of case managers is to identifying and assessing these needs and also it is important to tailor and customize the services and interventions as per the needs of particular a patient.
Quality case management practices results in improved decision-making and service delivery. Case management is a function practiced in all the sectors and organizations. However, this function is most commonly practiced in the social work, public health and social science sector nowadays. Case management is referred to as a specialty practice that relates to health and human services profession. The case management specialists, also called as the case managers specialize in managing, providing, and executing a client’s need and careappropriately, effectively and efficiently (Dieterich et al., 2017). Case management aims to deliver a health or social science service. It implements advising, communication, education and awareness, and identification of resources available for services, and thus facilitation and provision of service.
Case managers and case management relate to various fields of health and human services professions. It caters to fields of nursing, medicine, social work, rehabilitation and counselling, and mental and behavioural health. Case managers have primary responsibility of providing effective services to individuals.
The case management process assists in good management practice. It enables the case managers and other associated professionals to find out service needs and if there exist any gaps. The process also assists in enabling the case managers in monitoring the performance of staff and volunteers, and also promotes transparency and accountability. It also helps to plan effective budgets.
Case management is a collaborative process. It is a specialty practiceof cross-disciplinary and interdependent factors. Everyone involved directly or indirectly benefits from this. When an individual to whom the case management service is provided attains the required level of wellness all the people involved benefit from it. It includes the participants being served, thesupport systems, the care delivery professionals and the various other associates. (Luckin et al., 2017).Thus, case management is a collaborative practice which involves other many other people or professionals along with the case manager. All of these work in collaboration for a common goal and their collective efforts helps them to achieve the goal or complete the case.
The collaborative practice of case management involves direct communication between the case manager, the participant, and the other appropriate service personnelto enable the optimization ofthe result for all (Luckin, et al., 2017). Collaborative case management systemconsists a series of step performed collectively by all the people involved to provide system and services to the client. The steps in this process are screening, assessing, stratifying risk, planning, implementation or care coordination, following-up, transitioning or transitional care, communication post transition, and evaluating (Shani,Tenkasi, & Alexander, 2017). The role of collaborative practice in case management by taking example of a case from the health service sector can be described as follows(Shani, Tenkasi, & Alexander, 2017):
Facilitating communication with the families of the individuals seeking treatment by promoting education.
Identifying individual’s needs and requirements of care.
Supporting the development and implementation of service plan through interdisciplinary collaboration and collective efforts with the team and the individual.
Planning for any kind of assistance required to decrease or eliminate the errors in service plan.
Analysing individual’s needs and encourage to provide effective individual help.
Analysing and developing data to develop health diagnosis and other interdisciplinary issues.
Make efficient and effective use of the available resources.
Directing the patient to the most appropriate resources and services and facilitating the optimum use of the available facilities.
Monitoring the implementation of service plan by collaboration with the team.
Monitor service and individual progress by verifying of the accomplishment of objectives.
Thus, collaborative case management is a wholistic and complete approach that manages the client’s condition and provides support system to the client.It addresses and all the client condition like the medical, physical, functional, emotional, financial, psychosocial, behavioural, and other needs (Marin, Hauder, &Matthes, 2016).The center of collaborative case management system is the client, his needs and provision of most effective support system to the client. It is adaptive in nature and adapts to both the practice setting of the case managers. It also adapts to the healthcare setting in which the participant is receiving the services.
Collaborative case management combines together the various disciplines, talents, perspectives, knowledge and experience of a broad range of people, including clients. It encourages to display collective efforts with the use of skills, knowledge and expertise to achieve the most optimum and effective result. Case managers are aware of the importance and need of quality outcomes for their clients.They implement the efficient resource use and try to empowerclients in a supportive and objective manner.Thus,case management is an organized, structured process for facilitating the process of change in participants and transitioning them towards self-sufficiency.
Dieterich, M. et. al. (2017). Intensive case management for severe mental illness. Retrieved from: https://www.cochranelibrary.com
Frankel, A.J., Gelman, S.R. & Pastor, D.K (2018). Case management: An introduction to concepts and skill. New York: Oxford University Press.
Luckin, R., et. al. (2017). Solved! Making the case for collaborative problem-solving. Retrieved from: https:// www.nesta.org.uk/publictions/solved-making-case-collaborative-problem-solving
Marin, M.A., Hauder, M. &Matthes, F. (2016). Case management: An evaluation of existing approaches for knowledge-intensive processes. International Conference on Business Process Management, 256, 5-16.
Shani, A.B., Tenkasi, R.R. & Alexander, B.N. (2017). Knowledge and practice: A historical perspective on collaborative case management.
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