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  • Subject Name : Environmental Science

Code of Ethics for Wildlife Studies

Table of Contents

Introduction.

Aim..

Literature Review..

Survey design.

Partition or stratify areas or habitats for survey.

Identification of different habitats.

Methods.

Set of techniques to survey all vertebrates.

Specification whether all procedures will be applied in all habitats.

Specification the duration of the survey.

Specification the timing of the survey.

References.

Introduction to Wildlife Survey Proposal

This particular study will be subjected in context to wildlife survey. The area of study in this context is provided in figure 1. The survey will be conducted throughout the area within the circle. This area can also be viewed in Google Earth by typing in ‘Sandy Flat Rd, Cumbalum, NSW’. The western boundary is the Pacific Hwy. the main intention of this study is to state a comprehensive vertebrate fauna survey. The survey will take into consideration which threatened/endangered species may be present there.

Aim

The aim of this study is to conduct a survey in terms of comprehensive vertebrate fauna

Literature Review of Wildlife Survey Proposal

In this context, the earlier records or the database records of the particular area will be collected from the Australian Bureau of Statistics for example Byron Bay. The area chosen for the study is probable to capture (as per the database records) Reptiles and frogs, Tortoises, Non-flying mammals, owls. Animals can be captured when detected sheltering under objects in the field (e.g. rocks, logs) or when they are located actively moving about. Searches at night will be useful for detecting active frogs and some reptiles. Apart from that it had been identified from several studies that pitfall traps are very much useful in this context (Haering et al. 2019).

Survey Design

The survey will be conducted in the area of Sandy Flat Rd, Cumbalum, NSW. The sampling will be done in context to the different habitats mostly 5 habitats that is proportional to their availability in that particular area. Probability sampling design (Stratified sampling) will be taken into account as sampling the entire habitat in nearly impossible. However, sampling sites chosen will be independent of each other. Different broad habitats will be identified by topographic map and aerial photos on Google Earth (animalethics.org.au, 2014).

Partition or Stratify Areas or Habitats for Survey

The researcher will divide the habitat as the large number of sites is available in this area. Five habitats × five sites in each habitat will be stratified for the survey.

Identification of Different Habitats

  • identify broad vegetation habitat types, or

To determine the density of green on a patch of land, researchers need to view the distinct colors (wavelengths) of visible and near-infrared sunlight reflected by the plants. Topographic map and aerial photos will help in this context (Spratt & Beveridge, 2019).

  • identify topographic habitat areas

A map represents two contour lines (often of the same contour) at the same height as well as at a certain distance. When the lines intersect, the top is flattened on a higher plateau or continues to grow with additional contour lines. A valley landscape is a long depression formed by the action of water (V-shaped) or decorated by glaciers (U-shaped). Valley bottles show their closed edges at higher altitudes by "U" or "V" shaped contour lines (Marcinkowska-Ochtyra et al. 2019). A Gully is a channel or ditch that is formed as a result of water erosion. Couloir is a steep gully or gorge formed on the side of a hill. The Gullies elevate their closed edge to a higher altitude by a "U" or "V" shaped contour line. U-shapes represent more rounded lanes, while V-shapes are used for narrower lanes.

 

Methods of Wildlife Survey Proposal

Number of survey sites per habitat

There will be five survey sites for five habitats.

Set of Techniques to Survey All Vertebrates

Reptiles and frogs

Hand capture is often employed to survey these animals. Animals can be captured when detected sheltering under objects in the field (e.g. rocks, logs) or when they are located actively moving about. Searches at night will be useful for detecting active frogs and some reptiles.

Tortoises

Drum traps are used to capture these animals.

Bats

Bat-trapping includes standard procedures using harp traps and mist nets. Harp traps are erected in areas that are believed to be flyways for bats. Mist nets are also erected in flyways.

Non-flying mammals

These mammals will be captured in pitfall traps, in small aluminium live traps (Elliott traps) and in large wire live traps.

Owls

Surveys for owls will include the broadcast of taped calls from a loud hailer.

Other birds

Birds can be surveyed in a variety of ways including the use of call broadcast to target species other than owls.

Specification the number of traps

Total 8 traps will be used

Specification whether all procedures will be applied in all habitats

No, all procedures will not be applied as each habitat is different from the other.

Specification the duration of the survey.

6 months

Specification the timing of the survey

Ist August- 31st December

References for Wildlife Survey Proposal

animalethics.org.au (2014), from: https://www.animalethics.org.au/code-of-practice [Retrieved On: 27th July 2020]

animalethics.org.au (2020), from: https://www.animalethics.org.au/legislation [Retrieved On: 27th July 2020]

Haering, R., Wilson, V., Zhuo, A., & Stathis, P. (2018). Towards a more effective model of local wildlife care with the volunteer wildlife rehabilitation sector: A survey of volunteers in New South Wales, Australia.

Marcinkowska-Ochtyra, A., Gryguc, K., Ochtyra, A., Kopeć, D., Jarocińska, A., & Sławik, Ł. (2019). Multitemporal Hyperspectral Data Fusion with Topographic Indices—Improving Classification of Natura 2000 Grassland Habitats. Remote Sensing, 11(19), 2264.

Spratt, D. M., & Beveridge, I. (2019). Wildlife parasitology in Australia: past, present and future. Australian Journal of Zoology, 66(4), 286-305.

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