• Internal Code :
  • Subject Code : KD7011
  • University : Northumbria University
  • Subject Name :

Answer: 1

The rotor speed of the system or generator can change with the changing the& wind speed or wind velocity. Therefore, the turbine runs at the maximum speed Cp with the power and speed of the system Shi, L. (2010). Because of the variable wind speed, the torque of the rotor needs to control in order to obtain constant speed or desirable speed of the engine. The governing equation for frequency and speed control as following:


In case, the electromagnetic torque magnitude is considerable larger than the available torque i.e. Taero the turbine may stop suddenly. In case, the electromagnetic is considerable small, the turbine speed obtain up to the tip speed ratio which is above the optimal value and that will reduces the power co-efficient and torque value. Further, the turbine will reaches the stable position and obtain above optimal speed with the below optimal torque value Sarvi, M. (2014). 

Operating modes of the synchronous machine: 

  1. Power regeneration interval 

  2. Power regeneration interval 

In this case, the power generation through synchronous generator and induction generator. Usually, the power develops from primary to secondary side through loads, connection, phase breaker, etc.  This state is continuous develop until the switch turn-off at any time when the power turn-off. 

  1. ZCS commutation interval :

In this case, the communication occurs due to forward and reverses bias. At this condition, the hard switch turn-off or sudden communication off due to leakage of induction as the high frequency waves will not occurs. 

  1. Single circulation interval : 

The current and flow of frequency passes in single loop and produce current and changes behavior of individual loop. 

  1. ZCS communication interval : 

  2. Power supply interval 

Answer: 2

The d-q theory is also known as the “Park’s Transformation theory, in which the transforms stator phase quantities change the stationary frame aspect. At the same time, the d-q reference frame engage with the rotating rotor. 


The above equation demonstrate for the stator flux linkage and voltage, in this case, the transformation applied  with the stator flux which linkages and voltages obtain through the stator quantities. These quantities demonstrate in the d-q reference frame. In this case, all the inductances are varies as per rotor condition; also the balance steady state operation occurs as the stator quantities approach to the dc quantities. As considering electromechanical transient situation, the stator quantities change slowly with the change in frequencies. 

Answer: 3

Synchronous generator:  It is an electric machine device which converts the mechanical power from the source into the alternative current electrical power at the specific voltage and frequency. The motor always access at the constant speed Pahwa, V. (2016). 

Induction generator: the induction generate is uses for producing electric power when the rotor is operate faster than the synchronous speed.  This is generate due to the stator flux which induce the rotor currents, this develop the rotor flux with the polarity opposite to the stator connection. 

Controller:  The controller is uses for produces the output in which the electric combination of the outputs of the proportional, derivative and integral controllers. Therefore, the design and developed transfer function is proportional to the integral derivative of the controller. 

Speed Governor: 

The speed governor is the electrometrical device which function is to maintain and control the speed of the engine through controlling the specific amount of fuel to the engine.  The main element in the power generation is that the engine speed needs to constant throughout the procedure. 

Frequency sensor: 

The frequency domain sensor is the instrumental development device in order to measure the frequency instrument has an oscillating circuit. The frequency has the sensing part which depends on the dielectric constant. 

Hydraulic amplifier: 

The hydraulic amplifier is a device in which the power of the signal in the hydraulic sevo-mechanism or the specific system uses in order to fix the variable orifice which called hydraulic intensifier Ponticelli, F. (2014). 

Answer: 5

MATLAB programming output:


Answer: 6


From the result and MATLAB diagram, it observe that the significant discharge strategy demonstrate the considerable increasing saving at the operating cost with the help of stored energy.  In this case, there are two practical aspects and methodology implement in such a way, that will enhance the discharge scheme which are optimal fixed and found in the fuzzy discharge controller Lee, K. (2019).  In this case, the fuzzy discharge controller uses in order to enhance the sophisticated approach in order to achieve significance reduction of the entire operating cost of the device. Additionally, the implementation of the specific aspect needs to incorporate the long-term wind speed predicated in the controller structure. In this case, the fuzzy discharge controller operates as increasing the charge and expecting the wind condition. 

Additionally, the wind forecast is more effective when the fuzzy threshold controller execute precisely and that will reduces the entire operating cost as  reducing overall start and stop of the generator or controller.  In this case, the complete model demonstrates the methodology which uses for DC motor-alternator that set-up rather than using static inverter. In this case, the AC motor is connected with the diesel engine especially when it considers wind and PV power considered. That will facilitates enhance the quality of power and ensuring the continuously power or load supply. 


Alsofyani, I. and Lee, K. (2019). Evaluation of Direct Torque Control with a Constant-Frequency Torque Regulator under Various Discrete Interleaving Carriers. Electronics, 8(7), p.820.

Beluco, A. and Ponticelli, F. (2014). Inclusion of biodiesel and PV modules in a wind diesel hybrid system supplying electrical loads on a small farm. International Journal of Renewable Energy Technology, 5(3), p.229.

Kaur, N. and Pahwa, V. (2016). Enhanced Performance of Isolated Wind-Diesel (IWD) Hybrid System feeding Heavy Load under various Operating Conditions. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(40).

Safari, M. and Sarvi, M. (2014). Optimal load sharing strategy for a wind/diesel/battery hybrid power system based on imperialist competitive neural network algorithm. IET Renewable Power Generation, 8(8), pp.937-946.

Yang, S., Wang, G., Xu, K. and Shi, L. (2010). Linear regulator based single/dual frequency excitation control system for elec-tromagnetic flowmeter. JOURNAL OF ELECTRONIC MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENT, 24(2), pp.147-152.


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