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Literature Review: Physical Activity and Depression

Introduction

The study is the literature review that is based on the topic of PA (Physical activity) and depression. Depression is considered a more constant state of sadness. It is also classified as a mood disorder that leads to interference and affects the everyday activity of an individual. On the other side, PA is defined as the bodily movement which is produced by the skeleton muscle to perform any kind of activity. However, it is also noted that PA and exercise positively impact mood and nervousness and a great number of researchers have described an association of PA and general comfort, attitude and anxiety (Hiles, Lamers, Milaneschi & Penninx, 2017). This study will conduct the literature review on PA and depression that will lead to providing a deep understanding of the topic. Apart from this, recent researches on this topic will also be discussed and the gaps that in the research will also be discussed. Apart from this, a justifiable conclusion will also be demonstrated at the end of the study that will include all the findings of the study.

Literature Review

A literature review is an academic piece that delivers all the information related to the topic. The literature review also aids in finding the gaps that are present in the existing researches conducted by the researcher. This gap provides the right way for different investigators to research the most appropriate form and fill the existing gaps (Mourady et al., 2017). The main motive of this procedure is to deliver a validation to the research credentials that have chosen for the selected subject.

Stubbs et al. (2016) state that PA and depression are associated with each other as PA is very helpful in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. The study has suggested that depression is associated with low physical activity. This paper aims to understand and explore the global relations of PA with depression and arbitrating factors. The study has conducted secondary quantitative research. It is found that the effect of depression among the individual is high which has low people of physical activity. However, the mediation analysis confirmed that low PA among the patients has a high risk of depression which adversely affects mental health as well as physical health. The study also prevails that individuals with high PA lead to low depression as compared to low PA individuals. The author also suggested that it is important to take crucial steps to reduce the level of physical inactivity as it is highly affecting the health of individuals. This is the global problem and it is observed in all aged groups irrespective of gender or any other factor.

McDowell, MacDonncha and Herring (2017) state that PA is associated with the symptoms of depression as well as anxiety.  This paper aims to find the level of associations among adolescents belongs to Ireland.  The study has found that the level of depression among individuals with low PA is high. The authors have found that it is very important for adolescents to moderate PA to live a balanced lifestyle with no depression. The study also throws light on the importance of PA for adolescents as it will lead to eradicating the risk of depression which is now a global problem. The study has concluded that the effect of high and moderate PA is inversely related to the symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, there are various limitations in this research work as this is only justifiable to the particular size. The PA and exercise positively impact on mood and nervousness and a great number of researchers have described an association of PA and general comfort, attitude, and anxiety

Korczak, Madigan and Colasanto (2017) have stated that PA is associated with the reduced symptoms among the children.  The study aims to examine the impact of PA on the children and its association with depression. These papers have conducted a compressive research strategy in order to collect the data for the research work.  The data was extracted from the two independent coders. The data were analyzed by using the random effect meta-analysis technique as it aids to examine the possible preventive consequences of child and adolescent PA on depression. The authors have concluded that PA is stingily linked with the reduced simultaneous depressive symptoms; the associations with the depressive signs are weak. Apart from this, there are different limitations in this research work (Korczak, Madigan & Colasanto, 2017). There is a lack of standard measures and the use of self-report in the majority of studies.  PA aids to reduce the symptoms of depression which may lead to various health issues in children. 

Kiran et al. (2018) depict that there is a strong relationship between PA and depression. The authors also highlighted that twenty per of the world's adolescent acquired mental or behavioural problems.  The aim of this paper is to identify the estimation level of association between PA and depression.  The authors also demonstrated that two major health concerns among the adults and those are comprised of depression and lack of physical among the adults. The study has conducted a cross-sectional study in school. The total numbers of participants that take part in this are four hundred and fifty students from the school.  The PA was measured by the method of PAQ-A which stand for PA questionnaire for adolescents. The depression was measured by using the Becks Depression Inventory with the help of the interview method. There are 248 male candidates and 202 female candidates (Kiran et al., 2018). The paper found that the prevalence of depression among the students is 42.2 per cent while the inadequate physical inactivity was found around 43.1 per cent. The correlation between PA and depression was found to be 0.252.  The authors have suggested that it is high time to take initiatives to increase PA among adults.  

Choi et al. (2019) have stated that PA aids to reduce the risk of depression. This paper aims to investigate the bidirectional relationship between the PA and depression with the help of using the genetically informed method.  As per the authors the PA directly interlinked with depression it protects an individual against the depression. Depression is one the problem that affects the metal as well as the physical health of an individual adversely. The authors have conducted qualitative research. The evidence suggested that there is a protective link between the activity based on the accelerometer and major depressive disorder. However, it is also found that there is no statistical link between the activity based on the accelerometer and major depressive disorder. Apart from this, authors have concluded that PA can be a helpful and effective prevention strategy that aids in the elimination of depression among individuals (Choi et al., 2019). Furthermore, this study has several limitations such as it cannot similarly infer effect sizes as the medical test in which entities are allocated to a distinct program of PA of the definite span, as MR estimations imitate the lifelong effects of the project to genetic variations.

Mumba et al. (2019) also stated that there are different levels of PA that lead to predicting the depression in older adults. The authors throw light on depression among older adults. The authors have conducted secondary qualitative research in which data was collected from the national health and nutrition examination survey.  The studies have found that there is a strong relationship between depression and the level of income. The authors have identified that the individuals have a high income have low depression as compare to the other low-income levels. The individual having a higher income have low depression as compere to the person having a low income. As the age of an individual increase then all the levels of physical start getting declined irrespective of category. Activities related to the energetic regeneration and activities related to the reasonable regeneration have a different and significant impact on the depression score. The authors have concluded that PA interferences should be traditionally appropriate and custom-made to the wants and aptitudes of an individual older in order to maximize welfares and diminish adverse events. 

Conclusion 

It is concluded from the study that PA and exercise positively impact mood and nervousness and a great number of researchers have described an association of PA and general comfort, attitude, and anxiety. PA and depression are associated with each other as PA is very helpful in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. The study has found that low PA among the patients has a high risk of depression which adversely affects mental health as well as physical health. The study also prevails that those individuals with high PA lead to low depression as compared to low PA individuals. It is very important for adolescents to moderate PA in order to live a balanced lifestyle with no depression. The study also found that the effect of high and moderate PA is inversely related to the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Also, physical activity can be a helpful and effective prevention strategy that aids in the elimination of depression among individuals. The activities related to the energetic regeneration and activities related to the reasonable regeneration have a different and significant impact on the depression score. 

References 

Choi, K. W., Chen, C. Y., Stein, M. B., Klimentidis, Y. C., Wang, M. J., Koenen, K. C., & Smoller, J. W. (2019). Assessment of bidirectional relationships between physical activity and depression among adults: a 2-sample Mendelian randomization study. JAMA Psychiatry, 76(4), 399-408.

Hiles, S. A., Lamers, F., Milaneschi, Y., & Penninx, B. W. J. H. (2017). Sit, step, sweat: longitudinal associations between physical activity patterns, anxiety, and depression. Psychological Medicine, 47(8), 1466-1477.

Kiran, M. R., Kumar, U. V., Parthasarathy, N., Ambati, S., Krishna, Y. V., & Kumar, A. R. (2018). Physical Activity and Depression among Adolescents in West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, 9(5), 96-101.

Korczak, D. J., Madigan, S., & Colasanto, M. (2017). Children’s physical activity and depression: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 139(4), e20162266.

Mcdowell, C. P., macdonncha, C., & Herring, M. P. (2017). Brief report: Associations of physical activity with anxiety and depression symptoms and status among adolescents. Journal of adolescence, 55, 1-4.

Murray, D., Richa, S., Karam, R., Papazian, T., Moussa, F. H., El Osta, N., ... & Khabbaz, L. R. (2017). Associations between quality of life, physical activity, worry, depression, and insomnia: A cross-sectional designed study in healthy pregnant women. Plos one, 12(5).

Mumba, M. N., Nancarrow, A. F., Cody, S., Key, B. A., Wang, H., Robb, M., ... & Allen, R. S. (2020). Intensity and type of physical activity predict depression in older adults. Aging & Mental Health, 1-8.

Stubbs, B., Koyanagi, A., Schuch, F. B., Firth, J., Rosenbaum, S., Veronese, N., ... & Vancampfort, D. (2016). Physical activity and depression: a large cross‐sectional, population‐based study across 36 low‐and middle‐income countries. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 134(6), 546-556.

 

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